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Every cattle owner should be able to inject a calf or cow, since it is not always possible to consult a veterinarian. Of course, this is not easy - there are some peculiarities of administering medicinal substances to cows and calves. But you can cope with this task by observing certain rules and precautions.
Features of the injection of cattle
The introduction of cattle injections has a number of features. It is not recommended to ignore them, as cows are large animals and can sometimes be dangerous to humans.
The main task facing the livestock breeder is to limit the mobility of the cow. For this, there are a variety of fixation methods, in particular, special machines that significantly minimize the movement of the animal, and facilitate the procedure for setting the injection for humans.
Cattle owners know how gentle and sensitive animals are. Therefore, during the procedure, the owner needs to behave as calmly and confidently as possible. You should not raise your voice to the cow, much less beat her. It is better to act quickly and not worry the animal unnecessarily. Before the introduction of the drug, you can stroke the cow, talk in a calm voice, try to calm her down with a word. All medications must be administered warm so as not to shock the animal once again. The cold liquid should not enter the blood vessels.
It is advisable for the owner of cattle to have in his arsenal a supply of syringes, automatic syringes, a set of sterile cannulas of different sizes. The choice of cannulas depends on the weight of the animal, on the injection site and on the form of injection. For example, calves can be injected using a 20-25 mm cannula. An elongated automatic syringe is often used for injections. This is more comfortable and allows the person to keep a safe distance from the cow.
Attention! Vaccination should always start with young animals as they have the most susceptible immune systems.
How to inject a calf or cow
The administration of drugs to a cow requires strict adherence to all basic precautions against infection in the injection area.
If the skin of an animal is heavily contaminated, it is first washed with warm water, dried, then treated with alcohol or iodine. You should also wash and treat your hands. Injections are carried out only with a sterile instrument, observing the requirements for medicinal products. At the time of the manipulation, the cow must be carefully fixed.
When preparing a cow for injection, you should read the instructions, which indicate how the drug should be administered, that is, subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously. Typically, the injection site is the animal's neck or pelvic region.
How to give an injection intramuscularly
Intramuscularly injected drugs in the form of solutions. With this method of administration, the drug spreads rather quickly through the blood throughout the body. It is important to choose the right injection site. Usually, the area where the muscle tissue is most dense is chosen. This is the gluteus maximus muscle, the triceps muscle of the shoulder, the chest area. It is better to carry out intramuscular injections in the cervical region. This will preserve the quality of the meat.
The needle for intramuscular injection should be with a pointed end, 40 mm in size. Blunt needles give cows unnecessary discomfort. Often, with a poor-quality needle, pieces of skin get into the wound, and this causes inflammation. Injection syringes must be disposable. A good option for the procedure is automatic syringes with extension cords. They are often used to give injections to gobies.
First, the intended injection site is lightly hit with a fist, the syringe should be brought to the cow's skin at an angle of 45 degrees. Then the needle is inserted deep into the muscle. After the injection of the solution, the needle is removed, and the injection site is treated. In the event that it is necessary to add another drug, a plunger with the next drug should be attached to the cannula and inserted into the muscle. If the cow becomes agitated during the introduction of the drug, you should stop for a while and calm the animal, and then continue. After the procedure, you can rub the injection site to relieve discomfort.
How to give an intravenous injection
Solutions for intravenous administration should be transparent, without precipitation. Injections are made into the jugular vein, which is located in the neck area at the border of the upper and middle third. To see it, raise the cow's head and slightly push apart a fold of skin. There you will see a large blood vessel called the jugular vein. If it is poorly visible, which is the case with overfed, overfed cows, then the head should be raised even higher. First, a skin puncture is made, and then the vein itself is pierced. If the needle is clogged, and blood does not flow, then you need to inject again, while choosing a place just above the first puncture. The drug must be administered very slowly, strictly observing the dosage. The drug immediately enters the bloodstream and is carried throughout the body.
Intravenous injection technique:
- the jugular vein is pinched with a finger or bandage;
- the injection site is treated with alcohol;
- in the place where the vein has expanded, a needle is inserted at an angle of 45 degrees;
- if necessary, if the blood is weak, the position of the needle is corrected;
- remove the bandage (or finger) from the vein and inject the medicine;
- after the injection, pressing the vein, remove the needle and re-treat the injection site.
Intravenous injections are not recommended for an inexperienced person on their own. The procedure should be performed by a veterinarian.
How to inject subcutaneously
Subcutaneous injections are less painful for animals than all others. As a rule, alcohol, oil and water solutions should be placed subcutaneously. With this method of administration, drugs are better absorbed. The remedy begins to act in 5-10 minutes. Any part of the body with the greatest number of folds will serve as the injection site. The folds of the skin are slightly pulled back and produce an injection. A 25-30 mm needle is used to inject cattle; a 10 mm needle is suitable for calves. Do not give subcutaneous injections near joints, tendons and cartilage.
Subcutaneous injection technique:
- the neck area, where the deepest folds, wipe the cow's skin with an alcohol solution;
- pull back with your hands;
- the syringe should be held at an angle of 30 degrees;
- slowly inject the drug;
- process the injection site.
Advice! Before the injection, you must make sure that there are no air bubbles in the syringe.
With subcutaneous injections, the needle penetrates the subcutaneous adipose tissue, where the nerve endings are in a minimum amount. Therefore, the pain effect is practically not observed and the fixation of the cow in the pen is not required.
Sometimes nasal injections are used. When holding the animal, you also need to fix it, especially the head of the cow. Prepare a syringe with a plastic tip and a solution of the drug inside. The syringe is first inserted into one nostril of the cow and the drug is injected sharply, and then the same is repeated from the other nostril.
The main precautions are related to human safety during various procedures.
Fixation of the cow can be carried out by fixing the head or limbs of the animal. Sometimes a reflexive method is used, when the hand squeezes the skin over the spinous processes and pulls it up. In this case, the cow freezes and cannot move actively. Also, the cows are fixed with belts to the fence, wall, blocking the hind limbs with a pillar.
Today, combined machines are widely used, which can be used both in a standing position and in a lying position, when carrying out various surgical procedures. In this case, it is strictly forbidden to go into the machine to the cow or stick his head there. All procedures for the cow are carried out outside the machine. Violations of this requirement sometimes result in the death of the breeder.
Livestock breeders should take care of sterile injection equipment before giving injections. If the syringes or cannulas are dirty, then at best, the therapeutic effect may not follow. At worst, you can infect all livestock with yeast infections. A competent and caring owner should have a set of disposable syringes, cannulas, needles in order to protect themselves from more substantial expenses in the future if the animal gets sick.
Medicines should be stored in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Preparations lose their quality if exposed to moisture or heat. Under these unfavorable conditions, bacteria can enter the solution. It is necessary to store medicines in a cold place at a certain temperature. Regularly, drugs need to be checked for expiration dates. It is strongly discouraged to use expired products.
Injecting a calf is as easy as giving a shot to a cow, but you need to have the necessary knowledge and experience. And yet, it is undesirable to give injections on your own. Due to some crowding among cows, infectious diseases can spread quite quickly. Therefore, injections are carried out for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. In order to avoid many problems, cattle owners during the treatment of animals and routine vaccination of livestock need to control the work of the staff. It is especially important to comply with and comply with all sanitary norms and rules.