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The weather conditions in Siberia make it difficult to grow many vegetable crops. In such an area, gardeners will need to put in a little more effort to get a good harvest of their favorite vegetables. However, the inhabitants of these regions have long adapted to the climatic features of Siberia and manage to grow almost all the crops we know.
One of the most common vegetable crops is carrots. It is grown all over the world and Siberia is no exception. It is difficult even to imagine a vegetable garden that would not grow carrots. Moreover, a large number of varieties and hybrids of this vegetable are adapted to cold climates and can be successfully grown even in the open field. To do this, you need to know the basic rules for growing carrots. Also, many are interested in when to plant carrots in Siberia and which varieties to choose for this?
Features of growing carrots in Siberia
Carrots have never been considered a very thermophilic plant. Its seeds can germinate even at + 4 ° C. For normal growth, it is enough from +20 ° C to +30 ° C. So the weather conditions in Siberia are quite acceptable for growing this tasty and healthy vegetable. Young sprouts of carrots can even tolerate small frosts without harmful consequences.
Too low and too high temperatures can affect the size and color of the fruit. At temperatures above +25 ° C, growth is greatly slowed down, and the color of the root crop may fade. At low temperatures, carrots also lose their rich color, and the fruit becomes clumsy and unattractive.
Attention! For Siberian conditions, it is very important to choose good quality seeds. Small seeds have a small supply of nutrients. Namely, they help the plant to form a root system after sowing.
Until the root system is formed, the seed will use only those nutrients that are in itself. And only after the roots appear, the plant will be able to receive nutrients from the soil. The germination period for carrots in Siberia is slightly longer than in the southern regions. Because of this, the seeds need a lot of nutrients to germinate.
Also, in Siberia, you cannot plant carrot seeds too deep. Long winters can also complicate the task. So choose the timing for planting carefully so that the frost does not return and ruin the seeds. But still, gardeners manage to successfully grow in this area not only the familiar vegetables and cereals, but also heat-loving watermelons and melons. So growing carrots no longer seems impossible.
It's worth noting that carrots are incredibly healthy vegetables. Unsurprisingly, it is used to prepare such a large number of dishes. You can eat carrots fresh, baked, stewed and canned. Many housewives make preforms of grated carrots in advance and freeze them. In any case, although carrots are often not the main ingredient, it is simply impossible to imagine many dishes without it.
This demand in cooking is also due to the high content of vitamins and minerals. For example, many people know that this vegetable is very beneficial for eyesight. And all thanks to the fact that carrots contain a large amount of vitamin A. It is also rich in calcium, beta-carotene and iodine.
Attention! The rich orange color is not actually native to carrots.
Until the 19th century, she had a not very attractive color. There is information that at first the carrots were purple, and then varieties of white, yellow and red appeared. And only recently, Dutch breeders have bred carrots of the usual orange color for us.
Suitable varieties for Siberia
Many hybrids and varieties of carrots feel very comfortable in Siberia. To figure out which ones are suitable for cold regions, you need to know what types of carrots are divided into. According to the ripening period, all varieties can be divided into 3 types:
- Early ripening. Such carrots ripen within 80-100 days after the first shoots appear.
- Mid-season carrots. It will be possible to harvest the fruits in 100-125 days.
- Late carrots. It will take at least 120 days to wait for full ripening.
Important! For growing in Siberia, mid-season and late varieties are suitable.
Gardeners living in the area have tried a huge number of varieties. Among all the variety, carrots can be distinguished, which distinguished themselves by their particular unpretentiousness to conditions and high yield rates.
The variety has an average ripening time. In a warm summer, harvesting will be possible within 90 days after the first shoots appear. Sowing of seeds is carried out both in early spring and in winter. Such carrots are stored for a very long time. In a cold room, you can save the harvest until spring. The variety has excellent taste.
Variety "Losinoostrovskaya 13"
Also applies to mid-season varieties. The fruits ripen within 90-100 days from the appearance of the first shoots. Carrots have a beautiful regular shape. The pulp of the fruit is juicy and crispy. Seed planting is carried out both in autumn and spring. The length of the fruit is from 13 to 15 cm, and the weight of carrots can be up to 150–160 g. These carrots tend to increase the amount of beta-carotene in winter. So, lying down, the vegetable will only become healthier. The variety is stored for a long time, the taste of the fruit is preserved until spring.
High-yielding variety with medium ripening duration. Ripe fruits should be expected no earlier than 100 days from the appearance of the first shoots. Sowing seeds begins in May. The variety grows well outdoors. The seeds are buried in the soil to a depth of no more than 2 cm. The fruits have excellent taste. The carrots are juicy, with a sweet taste. The variety is suitable for juicing and eating fresh fruits.
Like all the previous ones, this variety belongs to the mid-season carrot species. The ripening period for fruits lasts from 100 to 120 days. The variety has high yield rates. The fruits are juicy, tasty, with a sweetish taste. The vegetable keeps well in winter. The variety is suitable for heat treatment and fresh consumption.
When to plant carrots in Siberia
You can plant carrots in Siberia both in autumn and spring. The choice of planting date directly depends on when the gardener wants to harvest. Everyone knows that for early ripening of carrots, it will be necessary to plant seeds before the beginning of winter. True, such roots lose their freshness very quickly and are not suitable for storage for the winter. Carrots planted in winter are most often consumed fresh immediately after harvest.
But still, the autumn planting of carrots has some advantages:
- fast ripening of fruits;
- large sizes of carrots;
- disease resistance;
- simplified sowing process. The seeds do not need to be soaked or dried.
Carrots planted in spring, of course, have a much longer shelf life. It remains juicy and tasty until summer. But this planting method has some disadvantages:
- seeds before sowing must be processed in several stages;
- the entire period of ripening of carrots will have to actively fight with weeds.
Spring planting in Siberia begins in early April. But first, you can get rid of the weeds, thereby greatly facilitating the further care of the garden. It is necessary to start this procedure immediately after the snow has melted. The garden bed prepared for planting seeds is covered with the most ordinary plastic transparent film. Under it, the weeds will quickly sprout, after which you can begin to fight them. Agree, it is much easier to remove weeds from a garden where nothing still grows. After that, the bed is covered with a dark film or other opaque covering material. You need to remove the shelter just before landing. Next, the soil is loosened and the seeds are sown. They are placed in shallow furrows, watered and buried, lightly tamped. This time it is necessary to cover the soil with a white film. This planting process will make it easier to care for the garden, because the weeds will appear much less.
For autumn planting, you should choose the right varieties of carrots. Seed packaging should indicate whether they are suitable for planting in the fall. Practice shows that you need to sow seeds no earlier than mid-November. Having done this earlier, there is a risk that the carrots will sprout even before the onset of cold weather, and in the future they will simply freeze.
Important! For insurance, more seeds are sown in the fall than in the spring.
Those who have planted carrots know that the seeds of this vegetable are very small, and it can be difficult to sow them in the right amount. To facilitate this task, many ways have been invented. Some people mix the seeds with sand, sawdust, or soil. Others use a starch solution for this purpose. And the most thoughtful stick the seeds to a prepared strip of paper with paste. By doing any of the described methods, you can save a lot of time that you would have spent thinning the shoots.
Also, autumn and spring planting differs in seed treatment methods. In autumn, seeds are planted dry, without any preparatory procedures. But in the spring you will have to work a little. Since the seeds need to be removed from the layer of essential oils, and then dried. How such seed preparation is carried out is discussed below.
Seed and plot preparation
The next step is to prepare the seeds for planting. It is worth noting that carrots germinate for a very long time, so to speed up the process, the seeds should be soaked or germinated.
To prepare seeds, the following procedures are carried out:
- Mechanical selection of seeds. The seed is placed in warm water and mixed thoroughly. After a while, unusable seeds will float up. Then the excess water is drained from the container. For another day, the seeds should be in water, and then they should be dried. You can start sowing.
- Heat treatment of seeds. This procedure allows you to increase germination, and also destroys possible diseases and infections. So, the seeds are poured into a prepared gauze bag and placed in hot water (about +50 ° C). Next, the bag is taken out and immediately cooled in cold water. Then the seeds should be dried.
- Seed bubbling. The seeds are kept in warm oxygenated water for 24 hours. Immediately thereafter, they are etched for about 20 minutes in a weak manganese solution. Then the seeds are washed with water and dried.
- Seed treatment with growth stimulants. The seeds are soaked with solutions of special preparations. For example, phytosporin or sodium humate is often used for this.
Important! You can carry out either one of the above stages, or several.
The next, no less important stage is soil preparation. Carrots are light-loving plants, so you should choose non-shaded areas. A lot of light is the main condition for a good harvest. When grown in a shaded area, the yield is reduced by 20 times. Also, carrots do not like too moist soil. It is very important that the soil is loose and fertile. With high soil density, the fruit will grow crooked and highly branched. If the soil is not loose enough, you can dig it up with the addition of sawdust or peat. As a fertilizer, you can add humus, compost or peat to the soil.
Advice! It is necessary to select organic and mineral fertilizers for feeding, based on the fertility and composition of the soil.
Taking care of carrots after planting
In the future, carrots need timely watering, regular loosening of the soil, pest control and top dressing as needed. The most important and long-awaited moment is the emergence of seedlings. Immediately after the young shoots have appeared, it is necessary to thin out the carrots. Also at this stage it is necessary to loosen the soil. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the plants. The best time for loosening is after the rain. And if the rains are not planned in the near future, then before the beginning of loosening the soil must be moistened.
Important! To prevent the formation of a soil crust, you can mulch with peat or other materials.
When thinning the seedlings, it is necessary to leave at least 4 cm between them. With a smaller distance, the root crops will grow more, but they will be small and clumsy. You can thin out the shoots only after watering the soil. So, the likelihood of damaging neighboring plants will be less. It is worth considering that the smell of freshly extracted root vegetables can attract pests. Therefore, it is better to carry out thinning in the evening, when their activity is much lower. Unnecessary sprouts should be immediately thrown away from the garden. Then they need to be dug in with soil or compost.
Over time, carrots can expose the top of the root crop, causing it to turn green. For this reason, a substance such as solanine appears in carrots. It is capable of imparting a bitter taste to the fruit. To prevent this, the sprouts should be huddled.
Important! The soil where carrots grow should always be moderately moist. This vegetable does not tolerate drought well.
Carrots begin to form roots very late. First of all, all the forces of the plant are directed to the growth of stems and leaves. And only a fourth of the entire growing season is responsible for the growth of the carrots themselves.
During this period, plants need regular watering more than ever. If the weather is hot outside, then you need to water the root crops at least 3 times a week. You do not need to pour the carrots too much. A large amount of moisture can cause the vegetable to crack. The amount of water per square meter should be increased as the plants grow. But at the same time, the regularity of watering will need to be reduced. It will be necessary to water the garden not three, but only once a week, but with plenty of water.
As you can see, determining when to plant carrots in Siberia is not difficult at all. The main thing is to choose the right variety and be guided by the weather conditions in your region. Remember that when planting seeds in the fall, you should wait for the frost to begin, otherwise the plants will sprout before winter begins. And when planting in the spring, on the contrary, it is necessary to choose such a time so that the threat of frost is completely passed. Observing these rules, you will be able to grow excellent carrots even in the climatic conditions of Siberia.