What does it look like when bird cherry blossoms

What does it look like when bird cherry blossoms



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Bird cherry is an unpretentious tree growing in many regions of Russia. In spring, numerous small flowers with a pleasant aroma bloom on it. The following is a description of bird cherry, photos, features of cultivation and care.

Bird cherry is a berry or fruit

Fruit is an edible fruit that grows on trees and bushes. This term is not botanical, it is often used in everyday life. Berries are juicy edible fruits that have no partitions between the seeds and the pulp. Their main difference from fruits is their small size.

Bird cherry is referred to as berries. She has small fruits called drupes. They have a tough skin, single seed and pulp.

General description of bird cherry

Bird cherry looks like a tree or shrub. Its gray or black bark is covered with white lenticels. Cracks appear on the tree with age. The crown is thick and wide, drooping branches. Young shoots are greenish or reddish, quickly acquire a brown tint. The height of the bird cherry tree reaches 15 - 17 m.

The leaves are simple, smooth, ovate and oblong. The length of the leaf plate is from 3 to 10 cm. At the edges, the leaves are serrated and pointed at the tip.

What bird cherry looks like can be seen in the photo:

Bird cherry inflorescences are dense drooping tassels 10 cm long. Flowers are white or pink, very small. Each of them consists of 5 petals and a yellow core.

In July, spherical fruits ripen. Their size is 8-10 mm. The pulp is green, astringent. The bone is ovoid. Drupes are at first dense and green. When ripe, the skin turns red, then black.

The cherry berries taste sweet and sour, strongly astringent. Ripe fruits have a strengthening effect, destroy bacteria, relieve inflammation, strengthen immunity, and normalize the intestines.

What family does the bird cherry belong to?

Bird cherry belongs to the Pink or Rosehip family. This group unites pome, stone and berry crops: apple, pear, raspberry, rowan, rose, etc. Bird cherry is also a representative of the Plum genus. Previously, it was ranked among the subgenus Cheryomukha; according to the current classification, it is included in the subgenus Cherry.

When bird cherry blossoms

The tree begins to bear fruit in the 5th or 6th year. Flowers appear in April-May. These times vary by region. In the south, flowers appear in April, in the middle lane - in early May. In colder regions, flowering shifts to late May and early June.

The flowers have a strong scent. With prolonged exposure, the smell causes discomfort and headaches. Therefore, it is not recommended to keep cut branches in the bedroom of the house.

Advice! The scent of the flowers repels mosquitoes and flies. If several inflorescences are left indoors, then insects will quickly leave it.

In spring, the inflorescences produce a lot of pollen and nectar. Therefore, they are used as spring honey plants. Flowers are actively pollinated by bees and other insects. The flowering period is 14 days.

Photo of a blooming bird cherry:

Where does bird cherry grow

In nature, bird cherry is found in North America, Europe, Asia and North Africa. In Russia, the common bird cherry is better known. The tree is found in the middle lane, in Siberia and the Urals. The distribution area of ​​bird cherry includes a vast territory from the North Caucasus to the Far East.

Bird cherry prefers a temperate climate. The tree grows in fertile, moist soils. It is found in mixed and coniferous forests: on the edges, next to rivers and reservoirs. It tolerates shade well, but develops faster in sunny areas. High resistance to frost.

The culture is used to design garden and park areas. Trees with a large number of leaves and inflorescences adorn summer cottages and city parks. They are used for single and group landings.

Types of bird cherry

The bird cherry genus unites about 20 species. Among them, the most famous are:

Bird cherry ordinary. Most often found on the territory of Russia. Grows quickly, resistant to frost, loves moist soil. The culture is planted for harvesting fruits or landscaping areas.

Bird cherry Antipka. A short tree with a spherical crown. The leaves are rounded, the flowers are small, white, growing in brushes. Used for landscaping in the southern regions. Drought tolerant but suffers from spring frost.

Bird cherry Virginia. Found along rivers and bodies of water in North America. It resembles the common bird cherry. Its main difference is the smaller buds that are distant from the shoots. The tree is up to 15 m high. In autumn, the leaves become brightly colored. Fruits are round, as they ripen, they change color from red to black. The pulp is juicy and edible.

Virginia cherry berries in the photo:

Bird cherry Maak. It grows in the Far East, Korea and China. The tree reaches 17 m, has a pyramidal crown and reddish bark. Flowers are collected in long clusters. The fruits are small, round and inedible.

Bird cherry Fine-sawed. The plant is native to the Far East. The tree is tall, with a spreading crown, up to 25 m high. In summer, the leaves are light green, in autumn they are brown and purple. Bird cherry with large pink and white flowers. Fruits are black, elongated, unsuitable for food.

The best varieties of bird cherry

The best are considered decorative varieties of bird cherry, bred by domestic and Western breeders:

Colorata. A small tree and shrub up to 6 m high. Young plants have purple leaves, and adults have green leaves with purple veins. The flowers are very showy, pinkish, growing in drooping racemes. The fruits of the bird cherry are black, suitable for human consumption.

Tenderness. It produces small flowers of bright red color, collected in large brushes. Bird cherry variety Tenderness is a frost-resistant shrub up to 3.5 m high. The crown is thickened, pyramidal in shape. Flowers with a pleasant delicate aroma. The fruits are sweet and medium in size. Variety Tenderness is resistant to frost, grows well in the shade.

Gull. The tree grows up to 4.5 m in height. The flowers are large, white. Inflorescences racemose, up to 15 cm long. Flowers have a strong aroma. The leaves are elongated, green. The crown is spreading and thickened. The tree tolerates moderate frosts well.

In memory of Salomatov. A frost-resistant hybrid, brings a high yield in the early stages. About 40 kg of berries are removed from one tree.

Important! The fruits of the Pamyati Salomatova variety have a honey flavor without any astringency.

Captivity. A tree with a few large double flowers. The flowering period is longer than that of other varieties. Outwardly, the flowers resemble small roses. The variety is unique due to its double petals.

Cherry varieties for Siberia

Siberian breeders have been interested in the culture for about 40 years. In the course of the work, the best Russian uniforms were selected. They were crossed with Virginia and other North American species. The result is hybrids that are resistant to Siberian conditions.

The best varieties for Siberia:

Black shine. Early fruiting hybrid. The tree reaches a height of 6 m. The crown is dense, in the form of a pyramid. The tree is self-fertile; a pollinator is required to form a crop. Fruits are black, with a glossy surface, collected in dense clusters. The taste is good, sweet and sour.

In the photo - the fruits of the bird cherry variety Black Shine:

Siberian beauty. Tall tree, reaches 7 m. Leaves are green, turning purple by autumn. Fruits are black, weighing 0.7 g. The taste is good. The variety is suitable for the decoration of the alley, as well as for single plantings.

Purple candle. Medium-sized tree with a lot of shoots. The variety got its name due to its narrow pyramidal shape, reminiscent of a candle. In spring and summer, the foliage is dark green, by autumn it becomes reddish. Average flowering, brushes up to 15 cm long.

Dawn. Virginia variety that blooms and ripens early. The tree is not tall, no more than 3 m. Self-fertility is partial, the yield increases when there is a pollinator nearby. The fruits are dark red with tart notes. The yield is up to 10 kg of berries.

Red tent. The tree reaches a height of 4 m. The crown is dense, spherical. Inflorescences up to 17 cm long. In autumn, the leaves acquire a purple undertone, but less pronounced than that of the Siberian Beauty and the Purple Candle. The berries taste good.

Cherry varieties with delicious fruits

Berries are consumed fresh and are widely used in cooking. They are used to prepare compotes, infusions, decoctions, and baking fillings. Therefore, for gardeners, the good taste of the fruit is of great importance.

Delicious berry varieties:

Sakhalin black. A variety of early fruiting, up to 7 cm high. Leaves and inflorescences are large. The pulp of the fruit is greenish. The berries have a pleasant sweet taste, light tart notes are felt.

Dense. A versatile early ripening variety. Medium sized tree. Fruits weighing 0.6 g, slightly flattened. The skin is tender, easily removed from the berries. Berries have a sweet and sour tart taste, are rich in sugars, acids, pectin, vitamins.

Self-fertile. Medium early fruiting hybrid. The tree is large and grows rapidly. Fruits weighing 0.7 g, black color. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant, slightly tart. The variety does not need pollinators to form ovaries.

Late joy. Medium-late fruiting hydride. Berries have a universal purpose. The tree is large, quickly grows shoots. The fruits are one-dimensional, round, with a delicate skin. The pulp is yellow, sweet and sour.

Bird cherry propagation

There are two main ways of propagation of bird cherry: from the stone, cuttings or grafting. Each option has its own characteristics. Saplings are placed in a sunny area with moist fertile soil. Choose places where the groundwater is shallow. The tree is also used as a rootstock for other crops.

How to grow a bird cherry from a stone

From the bone, the species Virginsky, Ordinary and Maaka are propagated. The best results are shown by the reproduction of Virginia varieties. To get new plants, large ripe fruits are chosen in the fall.

Advice! After picking from the berries, peel off and wash the seeds under running water.

The seeds are placed in wet sand and kept in the refrigerator. It is best to plant the seeds directly into the ground. Growing through seedlings is allowed. In this case, the planting material is subjected to stratification within 8 months. This is a complex and lengthy process that does not always end well.

For planting, choose the period when the leaf fall will pass. It is important to carry out work before the onset of frost. The seeds are dipped into loose fertile soil. The depth of the planting is 1 cm. 15 cm is left between the seeds. Then they are covered with earth and watered well. For the winter, a layer of humus mulch is poured.

Seedlings will appear next year. During the season, weeds are weeded in the garden bed and the soil is loosened, preventing it from drying out. Seedlings are regularly watered with warm water. It is applied in the morning or in the evening strictly under the roots of plants. In spring, bird cherry is fed with ammonium nitrate. In autumn, a mixture of potassium salt and superphosphate is introduced into the soil.

Too dense seedlings thin out. Between the plants they are kept 20 - 25 cm. After two years, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place.

Bird cherry propagation by cuttings in spring

Garden bird cherry is also propagated by green cuttings. This method is suitable if the desired variety is already growing on the site. In autumn, young shoots are chosen and cuttings 20 cm long are cut. In winter they are kept in a cool place, do not allow drying out or the appearance of mold.

In March, cuttings are taken to light and treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. Then the planting material is placed in water and the roots are awaited. They start planting when the snow melts and the ground warms up. It is best to choose an illuminated area for planting.

The seedlings are transferred to fertile soil. Leave 20 - 30 cm between the plants. Cuttings are placed in holes and their roots are covered with earth. Be sure to water the plants abundantly. They are not recommended to be repotted often, so they immediately find a permanent place for the seedlings.

The cuttings are constantly looked after. The soil is moistened as it dries. Warm, settled water is poured under the root of the plant. It is best to choose for watering in the morning or evening. After rain or moisture application, the soil is carefully loosened so as not to damage the roots.

Vaccination of bird cherry

Bird cherry is also propagated by vaccination. Many varietal traits are lost when propagated by seeds. A winter-hardy common species is chosen as a stock. This allows you to get a hybrid with unusual flowers or delicious fruits. As a result, 95% of the grafts take root.

Ways of grafting bird cherry:

  1. Budding. The work will be carried out at the end of July. First, the main tree is prepared: branches are removed at the bottom and 5 strong shoots are left. Annual cuttings with strong wood are chosen as a stock. A T-shaped hole is cut in the bark. A scion is placed in it and tied around it.
  2. Copulation. This method is used for small trees when it is impossible to make a hole in the bark. Work begins in winter or early spring, before sap flow begins. The same cuts are made on the stock and the cuttings, which are combined and wrapped.

The grafted seedlings need special care. They are watered and fed with nitrogen fertilizers: mullein solution, ammonium nitrate, nitrophoska.

What can be grafted on common bird cherry

Bird cherry is a hardy and unpretentious tree. Therefore, it is used as a stock for other crops. This breeding method is chosen in cold regions where it is difficult to grow fruit trees from seedlings.

Important! Cherries and cherries take root best on bird cherry.

Plum and pear grafting is less successful. The leaves on the scion begin to turn yellow and fall off. Plums require many nutrients that bird cherry cannot provide. The pear rarely gets along with any scion.

Conclusion

The unpretentious bird cherry, the photo of which was given above, pleases summer residents with its flowering and abundant fruiting. Both wild and domesticated varieties are suitable for planting. Bird cherry can be grown from seed or cuttings. The tree is also used as a rootstock.


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