Cattle scar

Cattle scar


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In cattle, the stomach is rather complicated, as a rule, it includes 4 chambers. Initially, the food enters the animal's oral cavity and then, moving along the esophagus, enters the rumen. Food in a liquid state passes into the net, after which it enters the booklet, where the crushed feed is dehydrated to a state of gruel and nutrients are absorbed into the animal's body. A cow's scar is located in the abdominal cavity on the left, which is important to know when studying its structure and functions.

Where is the scar in a cow

As you know, cows constantly chew, the lower jaw makes up to 50 thousand circular movements every day. Such behavior, as a rule, is due to the structural features of the digestive system in animals. The stomach prevents the coarse fractions from entering the intestines, sending them back into the oral cavity. The cow grinds the returned fractions a second time, which is why she chews constantly, without interruption. The stomach includes 4 chambers, each of which is responsible for performing a specific function.

All coarse feed particles from the cow's mouth enter the rumen. The rumen is the largest part of the stomach, capable of holding up to 150 liters. The scar is located in the abdominal cavity, on the left side.

Scar structure

If we consider the structure of the cow's rumen, then it is worth noting that it consists of several sections:

  • dorsal;
  • ventral;
  • cranial.

They are called bags, which are interconnected by longitudinal grooves. The grooves are covered with a mucous membrane from the inside, they are responsible for the formation of muscle traction. The largest sac in the rumen is dorsal; it has a horizontal position in the abdominal cavity.

The ventral sac is located in close proximity to the pelvic part, it is in an upright position.

The cranial sac is located in the lower part, occupies a horizontal position in relation to the dorsal one. As a rule, if pathologies are observed in the gastrointestinal tract, then food stagnates in the cranial sac. The ventral and cranial sacs, in contrast to the dorsal ones, are much smaller.

As you know, glands are completely absent in the rumen, and the upper part of the mucous membrane is densely covered with papillae, which contribute to an increase in the suction surface of the proventriculus. Digestion of food is carried out due to the fact that the food is influenced by beneficial bacteria and other microorganisms:

  • in the proventriculus there are about 7 kg of beneficial bacteria, which occupy 10% of the total volume. They take part in the breakdown of starch, proteins and fats. For the growth of bacteria, it is necessary to provide the cow with a sufficient amount of clover, timothy;
  • in total, there are about 23 types of fungi in the rumen, usually mold and yeast, which affect cellulose. Thanks to fungi, vitamin B is produced;
  • if we consider microorganisms, then there are up to 2 million of them per ml. They are directly involved in the digestion of coarse and dry food. Thanks to ciliates, proteins are synthesized, which enter the cow's body from food.

Important! In order to maintain the required amount of bacteria in the rumen, it is recommended to carefully approach the choice of diet for cattle.

Functions

Hay is the main feed for cows. If the food is coarse, then a "pillow" will begin to form in the abdominal cavity, which is constantly shaken when the muscle walls act on it. The food is gradually moistened, after which it swells and is crushed. After hay, the animals are given a juicy feed or a dry mixture.

If the cow is initially given dry food, and then immediately juicy, then the food rather quickly begins to sink into the liquid contents of the rumen. There it will settle on the walls, and the mixing process will be quite complicated. As a rule, the microflora of the rumen has only a partial effect on the swollen compound feed, which passes through the mesh and the proventriculus. The lump of food moves as quickly as possible.

Thus, the animal's body does not receive enough nutrients, since they are excreted along with the feces. Giving a cow first of all dry food can significantly disrupt the acid-base balance, as a result of which it can cause acidosis.

In the area of ​​the proventriculus, the following processes are carried out:

  • there is a breakdown of fiber to the state of glucose;
  • starch is converted into glycogen and amylopectin, the formation of volatile and non-volatile fatty acids occurs;
  • proteins are broken down to amino acids and simplest polypeptides, the process of ammonia release begins;
  • due to the influence of the microflora of the rumen and stomach, vitamin B is synthesized. In addition, vitamins of the K group also begin to form. If the functioning of the rumen is impaired, the vitamins are injected into the cow's body through injections.

Most of the nutrients enter the cow's body through the nipples, which are located on the rumen mucosa. The rest of the substances enter the intestines through the proventriculus, from where they are further carried by the blood to all organs. It is important to consider that the work of the rumen in a cow is accompanied by abundant gas production.

If the development of diseases is observed, then gases will begin to accumulate in the area of ​​the cranial sac, which is located in the lower part on the left side. That is why the massage is done to the animal in this part of the abdomen. Experts recommend to approach the question of the diet of animals as responsibly as possible. This is due primarily to the fact that in violation of the microflora of the stomach and scar, various pathologies begin to actively develop.

Attention! Cows must have a rumen cushion of roughage.

Conclusion

A cow's scar is on the left side of the abdomen. This section of the stomach is considered the largest. Due to the fact that bacteria and microorganisms act on rough food, the fermentation process takes place, after which the food begins to break down.


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