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Peonies reproduce mainly in a vegetative way - in parts of an adult plant. The survival rate in this case is quite good, but in order for reproduction to be successful, you need to know the basic rules.
Peony breeding methods
There are several ways in which perennial peonies breed. Among them are:
- reproduction by dividing the bush, the method allows you to preserve all varietal characteristics, but it is used only for adult bushes;
- propagation by stem cuttings, the method is rather troublesome and complex, it allows you to preserve the characteristics of varietal peonies, but is not suitable for breeding hybrids;
- propagation by root cuttings, the characteristics of the variety when using the method are preserved in some hybrids and medicinal peony, due to which the method is especially popular;
- propagation by pruning, a simple way in which the characteristics of the variety are preserved, however, it can be practiced, like the classical division, only for adult bushes.
Seed propagation should be singled out in a separate category. It is possible to increase the flower population on the site in this way, but seed breeding is rarely chosen. With it, the characteristics of the variety are not preserved, not all peonies, in principle, give seeds, and besides, the germination rate here is not too high.
Most flowers are propagated vegetatively - it is more convenient and faster.
Breeding timing of peonies
Flower reproduction can be carried out both in spring and autumn. But at the same time, you need to choose methods that are appropriate for the season, since the plant can not be bred by any means throughout the year.
When and how to propagate a peony in spring
The spring period is well suited for the following breeding methods for peony:
- Dividing the peony bush in the spring. It is allowed to carry out the procedure, including at the beginning of the growing season. At the same time, it is better not to touch the flower bushes immediately after the snow melts, but from mid-April it is already possible to dig up and divide the plant.
- Stem cuttings. Reproduction can be carried out in late spring and early summer, about 10 days before flowering and directly during flowering.
- Vertical layering. It is necessary to start growing peony cuttings in early spring, at the very beginning of the growing season, after the snow cover melts.
- Pruning. Reproduction of a peony in this way is also carried out in early spring after the snow melts, in fact, the method is a variation of the usual division of the bush.
The advantages of spring reproduction are that during the season, young cuttings, layering or cuttings have time to get stronger and easily survive the winter.
Breeding can be carried out both in spring and autumn.
When and how to propagate peonies in autumn
Autumn propagation of peonies is usually carried out until October, the plant needs at least a month to take root properly. You can use the following methods in the fall:
- root cuttings - pieces of roots are usually harvested from early August to mid-September, at a time when the buds have already ripened, but small roots have not yet formed;
- division of the bush - the procedure is carried out from September to October, before the onset of the first cold weather.
Advice! It is necessary to choose the time for the reproduction of the plant taking into account the region, for example, for Siberia it is better to carry out the procedure in the spring, since the cold comes too early in the fall.
How to propagate peonies by cuttings
The grafting method is usually used to breed the most valuable varieties of peonies. This is due to the fact that the risks of damaging the uterine bush are minimal. Even if reproduction is not successful, the existing plant will not be affected.
Propagation of peonies by stem cuttings
Stem cuttings are not the easiest method, and peony shoots do not always take root. Therefore, before the procedure, it is recommended to prepare more cuttings, up to 20% of the stems from an adult plant 5 years old and older.
The reproduction algorithm is as follows.
- Select several healthy stems from the middle of the peony bush. Then either they are torn off with a sharp movement along with the underground part, or they are cut off near the ground itself.
- The stems are divided into 2-3 cuttings with the help of a secateurs, each of them should have at least 2 internodes.
- Cuttings in the lower part are cut under the leaf, removing the leaf itself, the upper leaf is cut off by a third.
- Cuttings are soaked for 2.5 hours in Kornevin's solution from the side of the lower cut - this stimulates the peony to grow faster.
Stem cuttings are not suitable for hybrid varieties
You can grow a peony from a cutting both in an open garden and in a tin can at home. The soil in both cases will need the same - the leafy soil is mixed in equal parts with compost, and a few centimeters of clean sand is poured on top.
After preparation, the cuttings are buried 5 cm in the sand with a slight slope, moistened and covered with a film or glass jar. Shoots should be sprayed with water three times a day, and after 3 weeks of cultivation, ventilated daily, first for half an hour, then up to 3 hours. The temperature for cuttings should not exceed 25 ° C.
If the cuttings are grown at home, then for the winter they should be provided with a temperature drop to about 15 ° C.
In an open garden bed, cuttings are covered with brushwood, straw or sawdust for the winter months. At the beginning of the next spring, after the snow melts, the shoots are carefully transplanted into the ground to a permanent place.
Advice! To protect against fungus and infections, shoots are recommended to be watered weekly with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
The stem propagation method is only suitable for varietal peonies. Interspecific hybrids do not reproduce in this way.
Cuttings need to be harvested in large volumes, not all of them will take root
Propagation of peonies by root cuttings
A root cut is a small section of the rhizome of a peony, which has its own root and sprout eye. Plant propagation is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- A peony bush is dug out of the ground and carefully cleaned of old roots and dirt. The rhizome is divided into pieces of 5-7 cm, each of the pieces should contain a bud and a young root.
- The planting material is soaked for 2 hours for disinfection in a solution of potassium permanganate, and then slightly dried in the fresh air and rolled in crushed coal.
- Root cuttings are left overnight so that a crust can form on the cuts.
After that, the planting material is placed on temporary beds with nutritious soil or in tin cans with prepared soil from fertile soil and compost. The root cuttings are deepened 4 cm deep, kept in a lighted place with light shading and watered regularly. Both at home and in open conditions, young shoots should appear in the spring, after which they continue to look after the peony for another year, and then transplanted to a permanent place.
Root cuttings can be carried out both at home and on the site
Important! Root cuttings are suitable for hybrid varieties Karina, Baroness Schroeder, Carol and Helen Cowley, as well as for medicinal peony.
How to propagate peonies with vertical layers
A very simple and convenient way to propagate peonies is to grow vertical layers in a tin can. The procedure looks like this:
- in early spring, you need to take a long tin can without a lid, cut out the bottom from it, wash and properly disinfect;
- a jar is put on the selected shoot of an adult peony bush - a strong and healthy young stem;
- as the shoot grows, nutritious soil is poured into the jar - black soil, river sand and rotted manure are mixed in equal proportions;
- the soil in the jar is regularly watered, and so that the soil inside does not overheat under the rays of the sun, the outside of the jar is wrapped in cardboard and polyethylene.
Shoot care continues all summer, and with the onset of autumn, they cut off the stem under the jar with a sharp knife. The shoot itself, which during the summer manages to give roots inside the jar, is carefully removed and transplanted into a prepared hole in the selected area.
It is very easy to propagate a flower with vertical layers.
This method is only suitable for propagation of lactic-flowered varieties of peonies, and is not suitable for tree-like plants. Its efficiency is very high, and damage to the mother bush and the shoot itself is insignificant.
Reproduction of peonies by dividing the bush
Dividing the bush remains the most popular method for growing mature plants. The method is suitable for all varieties of peony, while the characteristics are fully preserved.
When is it better to divide peonies for reproduction
The best time to split a peony bush is twice a season, in the spring in late April or early May, and in the fall, in late August or early September. When carrying out the procedure, it must be borne in mind that the cuttings planted in the spring can develop slowly. In the first year of life, they simply will not have time to take root properly, since they will almost immediately move on to building up green mass.
In the fall, the procedure must be carried out before September 15, otherwise the first autumn frosts will not allow the peony to take root.
Reproduction of peonies by dividing the bush in the fall is recommended for plants over 5 years old. They have a more developed root system that tolerates intervention well.
Bush division is the main method for adult plants
How to Dig and Divide a Peony Bush
Dividing a peony bush is not a very difficult procedure, but it must be carried out according to the rules:
- On the selected day, all the stems are cut off from the peony bush and the soil around the plant is raked.
- The root is carefully removed from the soil, taking care not to damage the young adventitious roots that are responsible for nutrition.
- The soil is carefully shaken off from the roots, then the rhizome is carefully washed with water to cleanse the growth buds.
- For several hours, the peeled rhizome is placed in a shaded dry place so that it dries slightly, and then the adventitious roots are cut off to 10-12 cm in length.
The dried rhizome is cut into several pieces with a pruner or a sharp knife. Each of the divisions of a peony with buds should retain 2-3 eyes and a pair of adventitious roots at least 1 cm in diameter. The cut rhizome of the uterine bush is sprinkled with charcoal at the cuts, at the same time during the procedure all rotten areas are cut off on it.
How to plant a peony cut
It is best to plant peony cuttings in an open, sunny area. Before planting, the material is disinfected in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
Each of the divisions should have buds of growth and nourishing roots.
A planting pit for peonies is prepared in 3 days, the depth should be about 60 cm.The planting is carried out simply:
- nutritious soil is poured into the hole - 3 buckets of humus, a glass of ash and complex fertilizers in granules;
- the division is placed on a mound of soil inside the hole and carefully fill the space between the roots with earth;
- the hole is filled up to the end and the rhizome is poured abundantly with water.
After planting, the growth buds of the delenka must be flush with the ground or no deeper than 5 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for the peony to grow. The plant will be able to bloom the next year with a successful planting or after 3 years in case of slow growth.
How to propagate a peony by pruning
A convenient breeding method suitable for all varieties of peony is rhizome pruning. The method is as follows:
- in the spring, after thawing the soil around the peony bush, they rake the earth to a depth of about 15 cm;
- with a sharply sharpened shovel, cut off the upper part of the root system together with the buds of resumption of growth, about 7 cm below them;
- at the same time, the upper part of the bush is separated from the main rhizome and easily disintegrates into separate divisions.
The method allows you to get several dozen strong cuttings from one adult bush. The advantage is that the entire bush does not need to be dug up, which makes it easier for the grower and also reduces damage to the mother plant.
Pruning is a simple option for dividing the rhizome
After grafting, dividing peonies in the fall or pruning, it is important to provide the mother plant and young peonies with good care. It's easy to do this:
- It is important to protect the mother bush after dividing from possible infection. To do this, fresh cuts on the rhizome and aerial parts must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then sprinkled with ash or charcoal.
- After dividing the bush and disinfecting, the mother plant must be covered with fertile soil and mulched with sawdust in a layer of 10 cm. The peony is restored quickly, already by autumn, if spring reproduction was performed, and by the next season after dividing in the fall.
As for the rhizomes and planted cuttings, it is important for them, first of all, to provide good watering and stable temperatures. You need to moisten the soil about once a week. If the weather changes frequently, or the peony is planted in a windy area, the stalk or cut can be covered with a film, this will create greenhouse conditions.
Before the onset of winter, the mother bush, cuttings and cuttings should be properly protected from frost. Usually, a peony is covered with straw, fallen leaves or sawdust in a dense layer, this will protect the plants from freezing. With the onset of spring, it is important to apply complex fertilizers with nitrogen content, they stimulate young peonies to grow and help the mother bush to recover.
Attention! Transplanting cuttings and divisions to a permanent place is usually carried out in the second year after the appearance of green shoots, by which time the root system is developing quite well.
Flowers tolerate pruning and dividing very well and quickly begin new growth.
Peonies reproduce in several vegetative ways - stem cuttings, layering and root pieces. In all cases, the peony requires a careful approach to the breeding procedure and needs high-quality care, but it reacts quite well to breeding and starts growing quickly.