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Blueberries grow in areas with temperate or cold climates, wild bushes can be found in the tundra, in the forest zone, in swamps. Self-cultivation of this shrub has some features. More than 20 varieties of taiga blueberries with beneficial properties have been bred by selection. The best blueberry varieties for Siberia are created taking into account the winter temperatures below zero and the short summer, which is notable for its unpredictability.
Features of growing blueberries in Siberia
Common blueberry is a type of deciduous type of shrub whose berries are similar to lingonberry and blueberry fruits. The shrub grows up to 1.5 m, sometimes its shoots can creep along the ground. The fibrous root system does not have hairs, therefore nutrition from the soil is carried out through mycorrhiza. Blueberries exhibit high frost resistance, the life of the shrub is calculated in tens of years.
Siberia is a region located in the northeastern part of the mainland. In the east, it is bordered by the Ural Mountains, in the north is the Arctic Ocean. A detailed description of the region's climate depends on its location in relation to the northernmost part. The main part of Siberia is characterized as sharply continental. The difference between the average monthly temperatures of the winter and summer periods can be up to 50 ° C.
- Winter is extended by 1.5 - 2 months longer than the calendar one. In some places, winter temperatures can reach -50 °. During the winter, about a quarter of the annual precipitation falls;
- Spring in Siberia comes late, usually the beginning falls in the second half of April, while the thawing is active, but the return of frosts is often observed;
- Summer is characterized by division into 3 parts: the beginning is often hot and drought-resistant, then the wet and cool part sets in, later the air temperature drops significantly;
- Autumn for Siberia begins at the end of August, the air temperature is rapidly decreasing, and frost may occur by October.
The characteristic features of the climate when planting blueberries in Siberia are taken into account when choosing a suitable variety. The indicators of frost resistance and winter hardiness of blueberry varieties are important.
Blueberry varieties for Siberia
Modern breeders are trying to improve not only the taste characteristics of fruit and berry crops, but also their adaptive qualities. Despite the fact that blueberries are considered a frost-hardy berry, varieties are selected for Siberia, given the especially low temperatures in winter. When self-planting and caring for garden blueberries in a summer cottage in Siberia, only those varieties are considered that are capable of withstanding abnormal frosts.
- Blue scattering. This is a late-ripening type of blueberry, which has high yields, while demonstrating compact size, the bush grows no more than 1 m. The culture can form about 5 - 7 berries of the same shape and size on one brush.
- Northern country. Variety suitable for Siberia: withstands frosts down to -35 ° Cultra bushes are low, branchy, while the variety has high yields, it is often grown in Siberia because of the sweetness of berries, which are suitable for making jam or preserves from blueberries;
- Taiga beauty. Variety of medium maturity. The bushes are characterized as tall and spreading. With the enlargement of the fruit (in comparison with other varieties), the taste characteristics of the berry change. Blueberry Taiga beauty is considered to be a sour variety;
- Yurkovskiy. Adult bushes of the culture grow up to 1.5 m, have a spreading crown. The fruits on them are large, juicy. The advantage of the Yurkovskiy variety for the regions of Siberia is considered to be high winter hardiness, among the shortcomings is the average degree of yield: about 1 kg of berries are harvested from an adult bush;
- Blue Ray. A tall and sprawling shrub that hibernates in Siberia only with additional shelter. It bears fruit steadily and has high yield rates. Up to 7 kg of berries are harvested from one adult bush. The taste of the fruits is characterized as sweet, they are used for preparations, fresh baked goods;
- Rankocas. It is often found on the territory of Siberia due to frost resistance and winter hardiness. The plant belongs to tall types with a late maturity. The fruits on the bushes are large, juicy and sweet.
How to plant blueberries in Siberia
Due to the climatic features of Siberia, the planting of fruit and berry crops, such as blueberries, is associated with the observance of certain rules. In order not to freeze young blueberry seedlings, planting is recommended to be carried out on time. In addition, they take into account the peculiarities of maintenance during wintering, spring and summer care.
It is customary to plant blueberry bushes in the regions of Siberia in the spring, while the soil should warm up enough so that it can be dug without hindrance. It is advisable to plant young blueberry bushes before budding begins. When planted with the correct timing, the probability that the crop will adapt well before early frosts is 100%. If there is a need to plant garden blueberries in Siberia not in spring, but in autumn, then care should be such that by the end of October, young plantings have time to adapt and take root.
Site selection and soil preparation
The further growth and fruit formation of the bush depends on the correctly selected planting site.
In order for the fruit and berry culture to adapt to new growth conditions, as well as to start bearing fruit stably, warm and sunny areas are chosen for blueberries, while excluding:
- the possibility of through winds;
- shading from the crowns of neighboring trees or buildings;
- lowlands with surface groundwater;
- elevated areas;
Preparing the soil in Siberia for planting blueberries is one of the main agrotechnical rules. The taste of future blueberries depends on what the soil will be.
Blueberries love acidic soils, and should always stay between 3.5 and 4.5 pH. Such soil is difficult to find on the territory of Siberia, therefore it is additionally acidified. Mineral-organic mixtures are added to the soil, but an increased nitrogen content is avoided. It can lead to winter freezing of the soil. On the territory of Siberia, it is recommended to use complexes with a high sulfur content.
A well for blueberries in Siberia is prepared in the spring 2 weeks before the main planting.
Sizes depend on varietal characteristics:
- For tall bushes, dig holes up to 60 cm deep;
- For undersized varieties - 40 cm.
The hole is filled with a nutrient mixture of peat, sand and sod land, left for 2 weeks. Before planting, a hole is dug, if necessary, they are supplemented with peat.
A support is placed in the center, then the blueberries are buried. The root collar should be above the surface. Lateral voids are covered with nutritious soil, tamped.
After that, the near-trunk circle is leveled for ease of watering and watered abundantly. The next day, the trunk circle is mulched.
How to grow blueberries in Siberia
Planting a seedling is the beginning of a complex and lengthy process of growing blueberries in Siberia. The climate of the region dictates special rules, while gardeners have learned to take into account the peculiarities of the culture and get the harvest on time.
Schedule and feeding
Blueberries, which are grown in Siberia, love watering. The shrub is watered in the summer 2 times a week. When there is abundant rainfall, irrigation is minimized. Despite the fact that blueberries love moist soils, regular stagnation of water is dangerous for the root system of the crop. Soaking its roots leads to the appearance of rot, the development of fungal diseases.
Blueberry dressing in Siberia is carried out according to a certain scheme.
Characteristics of processes inside blueberry bushes
The beginning of sap flow.
Ammonium sulfate, zinc sulfate, magnesium sulfate, superphosphates.
Growing greenery, fruit formation.
Once, in spring or autumn
Before bud formation or after fruiting.
Magnesium, potassium, zinc.
Loosening and mulching
Agrotechnical methods of loosening and protecting the soil with a layer of mulch perform several tasks at the same time:
- prevent the development of weeds;
- protect the soil from moisture loss;
- contribute to the prevention of the development of fungal infections in the soil.
Loosening is carried out after each abundant watering, while it is important not to damage the root system, the upper part of which is located close to the soil. In Siberia, coniferous needles or fresh sawdust are chosen for mulching the blueberry trunk circle.
Advice! The mulch layer should not exceed a height of 4 - 6 cm, otherwise the soil will begin to rot.
When growing blueberries in Siberia, care includes spring and autumn pruning procedures:
- Autumn pruning is necessary to remove dry, damaged branches, to rid the shrub of fallen leaves, to remove dried fruits. This is one of the stages of preparing blueberries for wintering on the territory of Siberian regions;
- Spring pruning is formative and sanitary. After wintering, some shoots freeze out and become unviable. They are removed in the spring, while each gardener can form the crown of the shrub at his own discretion. Pruning of branches is carried out over the selected bud in order to stimulate further shoot formation.
Advice! Pruning in the summer can be corrective. Most often, in the summer, branches are cut, which block access to the sun for most of the shrub.
Preparing blueberries for winter in Siberia
Experienced gardeners believe that proper winter shelter plays a special role in the cultivation of blueberries throughout Siberia. When planting varieties adapted to low temperatures, as well as characterized by increased winter hardiness, the shelter of shrubs will become an additional preventive measure.
The development of fruit and berry crops at different stages has its own characteristics.
Important! When an adult bush enters wintering insufficiently prepared, the probability of freezing increases.
Preparation of blueberries for winter in Siberia differs from similar preparation of other crops.
- The bushes are not covered at positive temperatures, because steaming of parts of the plant may occur due to the formation of condensation. A humid environment promotes the development of fungus and the formation of rot on the shoots.
- For shelter, agrofibre materials, as well as burlap, are suitable. The peculiarity of these materials is that they retain heat, but allow air to pass through.
- The blueberry branches are bent to the ground in front of the shelter, this is done carefully so as not to break the shoots. At the same time, additional reinforcements are provided so that the blueberry bushes do not straighten again.
- Snow becomes the top layer for shelter in Siberia. Gardeners deliberately form snowdrifts: they create additional weight, which provides protection from the cold.
Pests and diseases
On the territory of Siberia, fungal diseases of the root system or stem are the most dangerous for blueberries. They infect bushes with excessive soil moisture, as well as with the spread of infections by pests.
In summer, leaflets may appear on the leaf blades; they can be detected by rolling the leaves and their selective wilting. To get rid of leaflets, foliar treatment is carried out with a solution of tobacco or laundry soap. Timely preventive measures help to prevent the development of the fungus and the appearance of parasites:
- regular loosening of the soil in order to destroy weeds;
- autumn whitewashing of the trunk to scare away insects and rodents in winter;
- removal and burning of fallen leaves;
- timely change of mulch;
- control over irrigation.
The best blueberry varieties for Siberia are adapted to low winter temperatures. But when caring for blueberries, special winter training and additional shelter are provided. Blueberries are called taiga berries. It is able to enrich the organisms of Siberians with useful substances, to please with the excellent taste of fresh berries or prepared jams.