Description of the Fraser fir

Description of the Fraser fir


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The Fraser fir is a popular coniferous plant that many people plant on their backyards. Caring for it is simple, and the decorative qualities are very high. This crop is suitable even for owners of small farms.

Description of the Fraser fir

The Fraser fir (Abies Fraseri) is similar to the balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and is often considered a subspecies of it. The tree got its name from the name of the botanist from Scotland John Fraser. It gained fame in the southeastern part of America, it was domesticated in 1811.

The Fraser fir is a small evergreen coniferous tree, reaching a height of 10 m. The trunk is about 45 cm in girth. The crown is conical, the branches are straight, often located at an angle of about 40 °. The bark is thin and rather smooth, has a brownish-gray tint. The older the plant, the more cracks and irregularities appear on the trunk. The Fraser fir is often called Danish.

The needles are twisted at the base and arranged spirally. Their length is about 2 cm, and width is 0.2 cm. The color of the needles of the Fraser fir is dark green, changing to gray at the base. At the bottom there are two silver stripes. Cones in the form of a cylinder stand upright, their length reaches 7 cm, and their width is 3 cm.The color at a young age is purple, changing to light brown when ripe. Scales of cones located on top are green, yellowish or purple, with resin protruding on them.

Fraser fir in landscape design

A popular plant in landscape design. But it should be borne in mind that the tree suffers from polluted air.

Important! Better to plant it in the suburbs for landscaping personal plots.

Fir is good to use in group plantings or alleys. Its neighbors can be birches, maples and a variety of shrubs. If the plant is a low-growing variety, then it is better to place dwarf conifers or perennials that cover the soil nearby.

The Fraser fir is also commonly found in hedges. This is convenient because you don't need to cut them. Since the needles do not crumble for a long time, fir is also used in floristry.

Fraser's fir is shown in the photo:

Which is better: Fraser's or Nordman's fir

The Fraser fir can be found commercially as a New Year's tree. She has a beautiful appearance and the ability to stand indoors for a long time without losing needles. They also offer Nordman fir, but it has a not very symmetrical and rather loose arrangement of branches, which reduces the decorative qualities of the tree. In addition, needles quickly begin to crumble from it. Unlike Nordman's fir, Fraser's fir has a denser and more neat shape, well suited for use in landscape design.

Planting and caring for the Fraser fir

In order for the tree to grow well and not lose its decorative appearance, it is necessary to choose the right planting site. It is worth considering that the plant in the wild is found in the mountains, at high altitudes - there is strong humidity and fairly cool air, short summers and long snowy winters. Accordingly, it is better not to place a tree in sunny open areas, partial shade would be ideal.

Warning! The crop prefers light, slightly acidic soils with good drainage.

Seedling and planting plot preparation

When choosing a seedling, they give preference to plants in containers. Planting such a fir is carried out at any time of the year, except for winter cold weather. The root system in the container develops well, and the earthen lump remains intact, which is extremely important for planting conifers.

Advice! When choosing a seedling, one should give preference to large and proven suppliers, because the plant is purchased for many years.

The peculiarity of firs is that mycorrhiza lives on their roots - a microorganism that helps to assimilate water and nutrients. But it dries up within 10-15 minutes in the absence of an earthen coma. Therefore, it is not recommended to buy fir with bare roots, it will not take root and die.

The area identified under the tree is dug up and all weeds are removed. Two parts of sod land are introduced into the soil, one part each of sand and peat - this will improve its properties.

Landing rules

In general, planting a Fraser fir is not difficult. You must follow the rules:

  • planting is possible in spring and autumn, the tree will take root equally well;
  • the pit is made twice as large as the earthen lump of the fir root system;
  • the soil removed from the pit is mixed with compost before filling it back;
  • previously prepared soil is placed on the bottom;
  • fir with a moistened lump of earth is placed in a hole and placed on the same level with the soil surface;
  • the plant is covered with the remains of the soil and lightly tamped;
  • form a near-trunk circle for irrigation and fertilization.

This concludes the process of planting the Fraser fir. It remains only to water abundantly and to cover with compost the surface of the earth next to it.

Watering and feeding

Fir tree care will not be difficult. It needs to be watered in dry weather, and moisture is needed in the spring to stimulate the awakening and growth of the tree. It is recommended to sprinkle the crown at least once a week.

Fertilizers are applied in the spring before mulching. It is better to use granular preparations at the rate of 0.15 kg per 1 sq. m. Young fir trees are especially in need of feeding.

Mulching and loosening

The circle at the trunk is loosened as a crust forms on the soil and mulched with needles. The plant also needs weeding. During these events, the fir is examined for the presence of pests and diseases.

Pruning

The plant is naturally compact, so formative pruning is not required. Sanitary measures are mandatory in the spring, before the juice begins to move along the tree. Remove all dried and diseased branches.

Preparing for winter

Since under natural conditions the plant hibernates in sufficiently snowy areas, it must be sheltered from the icy wind. This is especially true for young trees - they are provided with protection from return frosts and too bright sun in the spring during the first 3 years of life. The adult Fraser fir has a high winter hardiness, while maintaining its decorative effect.

Features of caring for a Fraser fir in a pot

When growing Fraser fir in a pot, for the successful development of a culture, you must adhere to the following rules:

  • avoid stagnant water, use high-quality drainage and a sump;
  • watering is carried out at the root, and the needles are sprayed with water, which is previously allowed to settle;
  • on hot days, sprinkling of fir with a cool shower is recommended;
  • the first 2-3 years after planting, the plant can do without fertilizing, and then granular products for coniferous crops are added;
  • the crown is not formed, but if there is a desire to do this, then the spring months are preferable;
  • once every 2 years, the fir must be transplanted into a larger pot, placing the root collar flush with the ground.

Advice! Due to the fact that the Fraser fir grows very slowly, it can be cultivated in a pot.

Reproduction

The tree is bisexual, with seeds starting to form at the age of 15 years. They will germinate best on soils rich in minerals, in moss, peat - in a fairly humid environment. At home, seeds are sown in the spring, until the buds are awakened. You can also do this in the winter. When sowing in spring, cold stratification is needed for a couple of months. Seeds germinate at a temperature of about + 20 ° C, moderate watering is required.

This culture is not propagated by cuttings, because the shoots do not take root well. Only the seed method is used.

Diseases and pests

The plant does not feel well with sudden changes in temperature. The tree begins to shed its needles and may die. Also a common problem is root rot. The bacteria attack the underground part of the tree if too much watering or poor drainage is used. Further, the disease spreads to the trunk and branches. The symptom is a sharp yellowing of the needles. You can save the fir before the rot spreads to the trunk. The tree is dug up, diseased roots are removed, treated with a fungicide and placed in new soil.

The plant is susceptible to another type of rot, which is caused by tinder fungi. The disease develops on the roots and then rises up the trunk. The needles of the tree turn yellow, the color of the bark changes, and voids are formed. The mushrooms themselves can be seen at the base of the trunk. Treatment with fungicides will help.

Of the pests on the Fraser fir, the most common are:

  1. Spider mites - the main danger is that the pest forms 4-5 generations in one season. The plant is covered with small cobwebs, the affected needles turn yellow and fly around. The mite is afraid of excessive moisture, so a shower for the crown of the tree will be a good prevention. If the pest has already settled on the fir, then an insecticide is used against it.
  2. Aphid - drinks juices from the needles of a tree and causes them to fall off. The pest can be seen if you look closely, it reaches a size of 1.5 mm. The fallen needles are removed from the tree and burned. Insecticides are effective against aphids. Copper sulfate is used as a preventive measure.
  3. Bark beetle - this name unites such pests as fir barbel, goldfish, nutcracker, beetle. They damage not only the bark of the tree, but also the roots and needles. The branches die and dry up. Insects are collected and destroyed, a woodpecker living on a tree will cope well with beetles.

Conclusion

The Fraser fir collects mostly positive reviews from gardeners, there are many attractive qualities in the description of its varieties, and beautiful photos of the tree dispose to buying this particular variety. For those who live in the city, it can be a potted plant. Subject to all the rules for the care, the Fraser fir rarely gets sick and always has a decorative appearance.

Reviews of the Fraser fir

Karpushina Olga, 51 years old, Pskov

Fraser Fir was bought for a hedge, because our site is large enough. They have already grown up and winter well. The needles are dense, the shape of the tree is very neat. Looks good at any time of the year. You don't need to form anything, the trees grow evenly.

Petrova Veronika, 46 years old, Voronezh

We don't have a very large plot on the outskirts of gardening. Fraser's fir was bought and planted in its far corner. Our variety is high enough and we reckoned so that the tree in the future would not obscure the plantings and the house. It grows slowly, but it tolerates winters well and decorates the site, we have it as a New Year tree.

Ponomareva Tatiana, 36 years old, Tver

We bought Fraser's fir on the advice of neighbors, it grows on their site, looks great and does not suffer from frost. The tree is compact without any pruning, the branches are densely arranged, there is no feeling of shabby. We want to buy a still undersized variety of it to plant in a flower garden.


Watch the video: The Story of Hill Farms: Evolution of Fraser Fir


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