Pig diseases

Pig diseases


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Pigs are a very profitable economic type of farm meat animals. Pigs grow rapidly, multiply rapidly, and bring numerous offspring. In the absence of infections and minimal care from their owners, pigs have a high survival rate. Pigs are omnivores, which makes it much easier to keep pigs. Pork is one of the most easily digestible types of meat. Thanks to these qualities, the pig could be the best choice both for business and as a source of meat for the family. If it were not for the susceptibility of pigs to various diseases, many of which are dangerous to humans.

Infectious diseases of pigs, with the exception of diseases common to several species of mammals, are not dangerous to humans, but they cause epizootics among pigs, which is why not only all livestock of domestic pigs in the quarantine area are often destroyed.

Symptoms and treatment of infectious diseases of pigs with a photo

Foot and mouth disease in pigs

Pigs are one of the species of animals susceptible to this disease. Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease with the ability to spread rapidly. The virus can spread on the wheels of vehicles, personnel shoes, through meat products.

In pigs, the disease is characterized by a short-term fever and the appearance of aphthae on the mucous membrane of the mouth, udder, corolla of the hooves and interdigital fissure.

The disease in pigs is caused by one of several serotypes of the RNA virus. All types of foot and mouth disease virus are resistant to the external environment and to the action of disinfectant solutions. Acids and alkalis neutralize the foot and mouth disease virus.

Symptoms of the disease in pigs

The latent period of the disease can be from 36 hours to 21 days. But these values ​​are quite rare. The usual latent period of the disease is 2 to 7 days.

In adult pigs, aphthae develop on the patch, tongue, corolla of hooves and udders. On the tongue, the epithelium is detached. Lameness develops.

Piglets do not develop aphthae, but symptoms of gastroenteritis and intoxication are observed.

Important! Suckling pigs are especially hard to tolerate foot and mouth disease, most often dying in the first 2 - 3 days.

Treatment of foot and mouth disease in pigs

Treatment of pigs is carried out with anti-FMD drugs: immunolactone, lactoglobulin and blood serum of convalescents, that is, convalescent pigs. Pigs' mouths are washed with antiseptic and astringent preparations. The udder and hooves of pigs are treated surgically, followed by antibiotics and pain relievers. If indicated, you can use intravenous 40% glucose solution, calcium chloride and saline, as well as cardiac drugs.

Prevention of disease in pigs

Due to the strict rules that have survived since the days of the USSR, foot and mouth disease in the CIS is perceived as an exotic disease that can affect livestock in the UK, not in Russia. Nevertheless, outbreaks of foot and mouth disease of pigs occur on Russian farms, but only a few pigs get sick due to the universal vaccination against foot and mouth disease. That is, only those pigs get sick, whose disease has "broken through" the immunity after vaccination.

In the event of foot and mouth disease in pigs, the farm is placed on strict quarantine, any movement of pigs and production products is prohibited. Sick pigs are isolated and treated. Premises, inventory, overalls, transport are disinfected. Manure is disinfected. Pig carcasses are burned. The quarantine can be removed 21 days after the recovery of all animals and a final thorough disinfection.

Rabies

A viral disease that is dangerous not only for animals, but also for humans. The disease is transmitted only through a bite. In pigs, the disease proceeds in a violent form with pronounced aggressiveness and excitement.

Rabies symptoms

The duration of the incubation period of the disease in pigs is from 3 weeks to 2 months. The signs of the disease in pigs are similar to those of rabies, which proceeds in a violent form in carnivores: a wobbly gait, profuse salivation, difficulty swallowing. Aggressive pigs attack other animals and humans. Before death, pigs develop paralysis. The disease lasts 5-6 days.

Rabies prevention

Since rabies is incurable even in humans, all measures are aimed at preventing the disease. In areas affected by rabies, pigs are vaccinated. If there are a large number of foxes in nature near the farm, it is necessary to prevent wild animals from entering the pigs. Deratization of the territory is mandatory, since rats, along with squirrels, are one of the main carriers of rabies.

Pig pox

Smallpox as a disease is common to many species of animals, including humans. But it is caused by different types of DNA-containing viruses. This virus only causes swine disease and is not dangerous to humans. Pig pox is transmitted by contact of a healthy animal with a sick animal, as well as skin parasites.

Pig pox symptoms

In different species of animals, the incubation period of the disease is different, in pigs it is 2-7 days. With smallpox, the body temperature rises to 42 ° C. Skin and mucous membranes characteristic of smallpox appear.

Smallpox is mainly acute and subacute. There is a chronic form of the disease. Pig pox has several forms: abortive, confluent and hemorrhagic; typical and atypical. The disease is often complicated by secondary infections. In the typical form of the disease, all stages of the development of the disease are observed; in the atypical form, the disease stops at the stage of papules.

Attention! Papula - colloquially "rash". Alternatively, small nodules on the skin. With smallpox, it passes into a pustule - an abscess with purulent contents.

Draining pox: The pustules coalesce into large, pus-filled blisters. Hemorrhagic pox: hemorrhages in pockmarks and skin. In case of hemorrhagic confluent smallpox disease, the percentage of piglet mortality is from 60 to 100%.

In pigs, roseola turn into pustules with the development of the disease.

The exact diagnosis is established by laboratory tests.

Pig pox treatment

In case of smallpox disease, the treatment of pigs is mainly symptomatic. Sick pigs are isolated in dry and warm rooms, provide free access to water, adding potassium iodide to it. Smallpox crusts are softened with ointments, glycerin or fat. Ulcers are treated with cauterizing agents. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to prevent secondary infections.

Prevention of swinepox disease

When smallpox appears, the farm is quarantined, which is removed only 21 days after the last dead or recovered pig and thorough disinfection. Pig corpses with clinical signs of the disease are burned whole. Smallpox prevention is not aimed at protecting the farm from the disease, but at preventing the spread of the disease further in the area.

Aujeszky's disease

The disease is also known as pseudo-rabies. The disease brings significant losses to farms, as it is caused by the herpes virus of pigs, although it can also affect other types of mammals. The disease is characterized by encephalomyelitis and pneumonia. Convulsions, fever, agitation may occur.

Symptoms of the disease

The incubation period of the disease in pigs is 5-10 days. In adult pigs, fever, lethargy, sneezing, and decreased appetite are noted. The condition of the animals is normalized after 3 - 4 days. The central nervous system is rarely affected.

Piglets, especially suckling and weaning pigs, suffer from Aujeszky's disease much more severely. They develop CNS lesion syndrome. At the same time, the morbidity in piglets can reach 100%, mortality in 2-week-old piglets from 80% to 100%, in older ones from 40 to 80%. The diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory tests, differentiating Aujeszky from Teschen's disease, plague, rabies, listeriosis, influenza, edema, and poisoning.

The picture shows the lesion of the central nervous system in Aujeszky's disease with a characteristic deflection of the back.

Treatment of the disease

No cure has been developed for the disease, although there are attempts to treat it with hyperimmune serum. But it is ineffective. To prevent the development of secondary infections, antibiotics and vitamins are used (to raise immunity).

Disease prevention

If an outbreak is threatened, susceptible animals are vaccinated according to the instructions. In case of an outbreak of the disease, the farm is quarantined, which is removed on condition that a healthy offspring is obtained six months after the termination of vaccination.

Anthrax

One of the most dangerous contagious diseases that affects not only animals, but also people. Active anthrax bacilli are not very stable in external conditions, but spores can persist practically forever. Due to the weakening of state control over cattle cemeteries, where animals that died from anthrax were buried, this disease began to appear again on farms. Anthrax can be transmitted even by butchering a slaughtered sick animal or by contact with contaminated meat while preparing a dish from it. Provided that the unscrupulous seller sold the meat of pigs suffering from anthrax.

Symptoms of the disease

The incubation period of the disease is up to 3 days. Most often, the disease proceeds very quickly. The fulminant course of the disease, when the animal suddenly falls and dies within a few minutes, is more common in sheep than in pigs, but this form of the disease cannot be ruled out. In the acute course of the disease, the pig is sick from 1 to 3 days. With a subacute course, the disease lasts up to 5-8 days or up to 2 to 3 months in case of a chronic course. Rarely, but there is an abortive course of anthrax, in which the pig recovers.

In pigs, the disease proceeds with symptoms of sore throat, affecting the tonsils. The neck also swells. Signs are detected only during the post-mortem examination of the pork carcass. With the intestinal form of anthrax, fever, colic, constipation, followed by diarrhea are observed. With the pulmonary form of the disease, pulmonary edema develops.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory tests. Anthrax must be distinguished from malignant edema, pasteurellosis, piroplasmosis, enterotoxemia, emkar and bradzot.

Treatment and prevention of the disease

Anthrax can be treated quite well with precautions. For the treatment of the disease, gamma globulin, antiseptic serum, antibiotics, and local anti-inflammatory therapy are used.

To prevent disease in disadvantaged areas, all animals are vaccinated twice a year. In case of an outbreak of the disease, the farm is quarantined. Sick pigs are isolated and treated, suspect animals are immunized and monitored for 10 days. The corpses of the dead animals are burned. The troubled area is thoroughly disinfected. The quarantine is lifted 15 days after the last recovery or death of the pig.

Listeriosis

A bacterial infection to which wild and domestic animals are susceptible. Natural focal infection, transmitted to pigs from wild rodents.

Symptoms of the disease

Listeriosis has several forms of clinical manifestation. With the nervous form of the disease, the body temperature rises to 40 - 41 ° C. In pigs, there is a loss of interest in feed, depression, lacrimation. After some time, animals develop diarrhea, cough, vomiting, backward movement, rash. Death in the nervous form of the disease occurs in 60 - 100% of cases.

The septic form of the disease occurs in piglets in the first months of life. Signs of a septic form of the disease: cough, blueness of the ears and abdomen, shortness of breath. In most cases, piglets die within 2 weeks.

The diagnosis is made in the laboratory, differentiating listeriosis from many other diseases, the descriptions of the symptoms of which are very similar.

Listeriosis treatment

Treatment of the disease is effective only in the initial stage. Antibiotics of the penicillin and tetracycline groups are prescribed. Simultaneously, symptomatic treatment of animals is carried out, which supports cardiac activity and improves digestion.

Disease prevention

The main measure for the prevention of listeriosis is regular deratization, which controls the number of rodents and prevents the introduction of the causative agent of the disease. In the event of an outbreak, suspect pigs are isolated and treated. The rest are vaccinated with dry live vaccine.

Many pig diseases and their symptoms are very similar to each other, which makes it easy for a pig owner to confuse their symptoms.

Infectious diseases of pigs that are not dangerous for humans and their treatment

Although these diseases of pigs are not common with humans, diseases cause significant economic damage, being easily transmitted from one pig to another and traveling long distances on shoes and car wheels.

One of the new and very dangerous diseases for pig breeding is African swine fever.

African swine fever

The disease was introduced to the European continent in the second half of the 20th century, causing significant damage to pig breeding. Since that time, ASF periodically flares up in different places.

The disease is caused by a DNA-containing virus transmitted not only through the excreta of sick animals and household items, but also through poorly processed pig products. The virus persists well in salted and smoked pork products. According to one of the official versions of the sensational outbreak of ASF in the Nizhny Novgorod region in 2011, the cause of the disease in pigs in the backyard was feeding the pigs untreated thermally food waste from a nearby military unit.

In addition to table waste, any object that has been in contact with a sick pig or a pig that has died from ASF can mechanically transfer the virus: parasites, birds, rodents, people, etc.

Symptoms of the disease

Infection occurs through contact with a sick animal, by air, as well as through the conjunctiva and damaged skin. The incubation period of the disease lasts from 2 to 6 days. The course of the disease can be hyperacute, acute, or chronic. The chronic course of the disease is less common.

With a hyperacute course, outwardly, no signs of the disease are observed, although it actually lasts 2 - 3 days. But pigs die "out of the blue."

In the acute course of the disease, lasting 7-10 days, pigs have an increase in temperature up to 42 degrees, shortness of breath, cough, vomiting, nervous damage to the hind limbs, expressed in paralysis and paresis. Bloody diarrhea is possible, although constipation is more common. Purulent discharge appears from the nose and eyes of sick pigs. The number of leukocytes is reduced to 50 - 60%. The gait is wobbly, the tail is untwisted, the head is lowered, the weakness of the hind legs, loss of interest in the world around. The pigs are thirsty. On the neck, behind the ears, on the inner side of the hind legs, on the abdomen, spots of a red-violet color appear, which do not fade when pressed. Pregnant sows are aborted.

Attention! In some breeds of pigs, for example, Vietnamese, the tail does not curl at all.

The chronic course of the disease can last from 2 to 10 months.

Depending on the course of the disease, mortality among pigs reaches 50-100%. Surviving pigs become lifelong virus carriers.

Disease prevention

ASF needs to be differentiated from classical swine fever, although there is no difference for the pigs themselves. In both cases, slaughter awaits them.

Since ASF is a highly contagious disease of pigs, capable of mowing down all pigs, pigs are not treated when ASF occurs. In a dysfunctional economy, all pigs are destroyed by the bloodless method and burned. Pigs in contact with sick pigs are also destroyed. All waste products are burned, and the ash is buried in pits, mixing it with lime.

Quarantine is announced in the district. Within a radius of 25 km from the outbreak of the disease, all pigs are slaughtered, sending the meat for processing for canned food.

The quarantine is lifted only 40 days after the last case of the disease. Pig breeding is allowed 40 days after the quarantine has been lifted. However, the practice of the same Nizhny Novgorod region shows that after ASF in their area it is better for private traders, in general, not to risk having new pigs. Veterinary service workers can be reinsured.

Classical swine fever

A highly contagious viral disease of pigs caused by an RNA virus. The disease is characterized by signs of blood poisoning and the appearance of spots on the skin from subcutaneous bleeding in the acute form of the disease. In the subacute and chronic form of the disease, pneumonia and colitis are observed.

Symptoms of the disease

On average, the duration of the incubation period of the disease is 5-8 days. Sometimes there are both shorter: 3 days, - and more protracted: 2-3 weeks, - the duration of the disease. The course of the disease is acute, subacute and chronic. In rare cases, the course of the disease can be lightning fast. CSF has five forms of the disease:

  • septic;
  • pulmonary;
  • nervous;
  • intestinal;
  • atypical.

Forms appear with different courses of the disease.

Lightning-fast course of the diseaseA sharp rise in temperature up to 41-42 ° С; depression; loss of appetite; vomiting; violations of cardiovascular activity. Death occurs within 3 days
Acute course of the diseaseFever occurring at a temperature of 40-41 ° C; weakness; chills; vomiting; constipation followed by bloody diarrhea; severe exhaustion on the 2-3 day of illness; conjunctivitis; purulent rhinitis; possible nosebleeds; damage to the central nervous system, expressed in impaired coordination of movements; decrease in leukocytes in the blood; hemorrhages in the skin (plague spots); the pregnant uterus is aborted; before death, the body temperature drops to 35 ° C. The pig dies 7-10 days after the onset of clinical signs
Subacute course of the diseaseIn the pulmonary form, the respiratory organs are affected up to the development of pneumonia; in the intestinal form, appetite perversion, alternation of diarrhea and constipation, and enterocolitis are observed. In both forms, fever occurs intermittently; weakness appears; the death of pigs is not uncommon. Recovered pigs remain virus carriers for 10 months
Chronic course of the diseaseLong duration: more than 2 months; severe damage to the gastrointestinal tract; purulent pneumonia and pleurisy; significant developmental lag. Death occurs in 30-60% of cases

Important! With an acute and lightning-fast course of the disease, signs of a nervous form of plague predominate: tremors, epileptic seizures, uncoordinated movements, a depressed state of the pig.

Treatment and prevention of the disease

The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory tests. Classical swine fever must be distinguished from many other diseases, including ASF, Aujeszky's disease, erysipelas, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis and others.

Important! The need for quarantine and the method of treating diseases of pigs with similar symptoms should be determined by the veterinarian based on the clinical picture and laboratory tests.

Which no one really does, so, for example, salt poisoning in pigs can be mistaken for plague.

Treatment of the disease has not been developed, sick pigs are slaughtered. They carry out strict control over the purchased new livestock of animals in order to exclude the penetration of swine fever into a prosperous farm. When using slaughterhouse waste at feed yards, the waste is reliably disinfected.

When plague appears, the farm is quarantined and disinfected. The quarantine is lifted 40 days after the last death or slaughter of sick pigs.

Porcine enzootic encephalomyelitis

A simpler name: Tashen's disease. The disease causes significant economic damage, as up to 95% of affected pigs die. The disease is manifested by paralysis and paresis of the limbs, a general nervous disorder. The causative agent is an RNA-containing virus. The disease is common throughout the European continent.

The main way of spreading the disease is through the solid feces of sick animals. Moreover, the virus can disappear and appear again, causing another outbreak of the disease. The virus introduction paths have not been identified. It is believed that a disease appears after the slaughter of virus-carrying pigs by private owners in their farmsteads. Since sanitary requirements are usually not observed during such a slaughter, the virus penetrates into the soil, where it can remain active for a long time.

Teschen's disease (porcine enzootic encephalomyelitis)

Symptoms of the disease

The incubation period for Teschen's disease is from 9 to 35 days. The disease is characterized by vivid signs of damage to the nervous system, leading to encephalitis.

The disease has 4 types of course.

With a hyperacute course of the disease, a very rapid development of paralysis is noted, in which the pigs can no longer walk and only lie on their side. The death of animals occurs 2 days after the onset of symptoms of the disease.

The acute course of the disease begins with lameness in the hind limbs, which quickly turns into paresis. When moving, the sacral section of the pig sways to the sides. Pigs often fall and after several falls they can no longer stand up. Animals develop an agitated state and increased skin pain sensitivity. Trying to stay on their feet, the pigs lean against the support. The appetite is saved. After 1-2 days from the onset of the disease, complete paralysis develops. The animal dies from suffocation as a result of paralysis of the respiratory center.

In the subacute course of the disease, the signs of CNS damage are not so pronounced, and in the chronic course, many pigs recover, but the CNS lesions remain: encephalitis, lameness, slowly regressing paralysis. Many pigs die from pneumonia, which develops as a complication of the disease.

When diagnosing Teschen's disease, it is necessary to differentiate not only from other infectious diseases, but also from such non-infectious diseases of pigs as A and D-avitaminosis and poisoning, including table salt.

Disease prevention

They prevent the introduction of the virus by forming a pig herd only from safe farms and necessarily quarantining new pigs. When a disease occurs, all pigs are slaughtered and processed into canned food. Quarantine is removed 40 days after the last death or slaughter of a sick pig and disinfection.

Treatment for Teschen's disease has not been developed.

Helminthiasis of pigs, dangerous to humans

Of all the worms that pigs can be infected with, two are the most dangerous for humans: pork tapeworm or pork tapeworm and Trichinella.

Pork tapeworm

A tapeworm, the main host of which is humans. Tapeworm eggs, along with human feces, enter the external environment, where they can be eaten by a pig. In the intestines of the pig, larvae emerge from the eggs, some of which penetrate into the muscles of the pig and there they turn into a Finn - a round embryo.

Human infection occurs when eating poorly roasted pig meat. If the Finns enter the human body, adult worms emerge from it, which continue the reproduction cycle. When tapeworm eggs enter the human body, the Finn stage passes in the human body, which can lead to death.

Trichinosis

Trichinella is a small nematode that develops in the body of one host. Omnivores and carnivores, including humans, are infected with the parasite. In humans, this happens when eating poorly roasted pork or bear meat.

Trichinella larvae are very resistant and do not die when the meat is slightly salted and smoked. They can persist for a long time in rotting meat, which creates the prerequisites for infection with Trichinella by some scavenger.

A simplified scheme of Trichinella infection from a pig: a pig is an omnivorous animal, therefore, having found a dead mouse, rat, squirrel or other corpse of a predatory or omnivorous animal, the pig will eat carrion. If the corpse was infected with Trichinella, then when it enters the intestine of the pig, Trichinella will throw out living larvae in an amount of up to 2100 pieces. The larvae penetrate with blood into the striated muscles of the pig and pupate there.

Further, they are waiting in the wings for another animal to eat the pig.

After the slaughter of a sick pig and the use of poorly processed meat for human consumption, the Finna of Trichinella comes out of suspended animation and discards its 2,000 larvae already in the human body. The larvae penetrate the human muscles and pupate in the human body. Lethal dose of larvae: 5 pieces per kilogram of human weight.

Disease prevention measures

No cure has been developed for the disease. Pigs suffering from trichinosis are slaughtered and disposed of. They carry out deratization and destruction of stray animals near the farm. Do not allow pigs to wander around the territory without supervision.

It is better for a person not to buy pork in unidentified places as a measure of disease prevention.

Important! To prevent helminthic infestations, pigs are dewormed every 4 months.

Treatment of pigs against worms

Invasive skin diseases in pigs, symptoms and treatment

Skin diseases of pigs, and not only pigs, are infectious, except for skin manifestations of allergies. Any pig skin disease is caused by either a fungus or microscopic mites. If these two reasons are absent, then the deformation of the skin is a symptom of an internal disease.

Mycoses, popularly all called lichen in bulk, are fungal diseases to which all mammals are susceptible.

Trichophytosis or ringworm in pigs takes the form of round or oblong scaly red spots. Trichophytosis is spread by rodents and skin parasites.

Microsporia is characterized by breakage of hair at a distance of several millimeters above the skin and the presence of dandruff on the surface of the lesion.

In pigs, microsporia usually begins on the ears as orange-brown spots. Gradually, a thick crust forms at the site of infection and the fungus spreads along the back.

The type of fungus is determined in the laboratory, but the treatment of all types of fungi is very similar. Antifungal ointments and drugs are used according to the scheme prescribed by the veterinarian.

Another variant of skin infestation in pigs is the scabies mite, which causes sarcoptic mange.

Sarcoptic mange

The disease is caused by a microscopic mite that lives in the epidermis of the skin. Sick animals are the source of the disease. The tick can be transmitted mechanically on clothing or equipment, as well as by flies, rodents, fleas.

Important! A person is susceptible to sarcoptic mange.

In pigs, sarcoptic mange can be in two forms: in the ears and throughout the body.

2 days after infection, papules appear on the affected areas, bursting when scratched. The skin flakes off, the bristles fall out, crusts, cracks and folds form. Pigs have severe itching, especially at night. Because of the itching, the pigs are nervous, cannot eat, and exhaustion sets in. If no measures are taken for treatment, the pig dies a year after infection.

Treatment of the disease

For the treatment of sarcoptic mange, external anti-mite drugs and anti-mite injections of ivomek or aversect are used according to the instructions. To prevent the disease, ticks are destroyed in the surrounding area.

Non-communicable diseases of pigs

Non-communicable diseases include:

  • trauma;
  • congenital abnormalities;
  • avitaminosis;
  • poisoning;
  • obstetric and gynecological pathologies;
  • internal diseases caused by non-infectious causes.

All these diseases are common to all mammalian species. Due to the similarity of salt poisoning of pigs with very dangerous types of plague, it should be discussed separately.

Salt poisoning of pigs

The disease occurs when pigs are fed too much salt in food waste from canteens or pigs are fed compound feed for cattle.

Attention! The lethal dose of salt for a pig is 1.5-2 g / kg.

Symptoms of the disease

Signs of poisoning appear in the period from 12 to 24 hours after eating the pig salt. Poisoning in a pig is characterized by thirst, profuse salivation, muscle tremors, fever, and rapid breathing. The gait is wobbly, the pig takes the pose of a stray dog. There is a stage of excitement. The pupils are dilated, the skin is bluish or reddened. Excitement gives way to oppression. Due to paresis of the pharynx, pigs cannot eat or drink. Vomiting and diarrhea are possible, sometimes with blood. The pulse is weak and fast. Before death, the pigs fall into a coma.

Treatment of the disease

Infusion of large quantities of water through a tube. Intravenous solution of calcium chloride 10% at the rate of 1 mg / kg body weight. Intravenous glucose solution 40%. Intramuscularly calcium gluconate 20-30 ml.

Attention! In no case should 40% glucose be injected intramuscularly. Such an injection will lead to tissue necrosis at the injection site.

Conclusion

After reading a handbook on veterinary medicine, you can get scared to find out how many diseases a domestic pig can have. But the practice of experienced pig breeders shows that in fact, pigs are not so susceptible to various diseases, provided that the area of ​​their breeding is free from these diseases. If the area is in quarantine, then the summer resident who wants to get a pig will be notified by the local veterinarian. Therefore, with the exception of the death of very young piglets for reasons not related to infection, pigs show good survival and a high return on the consumed feed.


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