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Every farmer who at least once has grown tomatoes on his plot knows that without fertilization it will not be possible to get a high-quality harvest of vegetables. Tomatoes are very demanding on the composition of the soil. At all stages of growing, they need various minerals that will affect the growth of the bush, the filling and taste of the fruits, the speed of their ripening. In this case, it will not be possible to do only with organic dressings, since only nitrogen is included in their composition in sufficient quantities. That is why experienced farmers use mineral fertilizers for tomatoes, which are able to provide plants with all the necessary trace elements. Mineral dressings can be prepared independently by mixing several preparations with different compositions, or you can purchase the mixture already in a ready-made form. Also organomineral fertilizers, which are a mixture of organic and mineral substances, are highly effective. We will talk in detail about the use of all these dressings in the proposed article.
Mineral dressing for tomatoes
For the normal development and growth of tomatoes, the soil must contain a whole complex of various minerals, including calcium, boron, magnesium, manganese, zinc, sulfur and others. However, the most important constituents are only three minerals: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Tomatoes consume them in large quantities at one stage or another of the growing season, which can lead to a deficiency of these substances and impaired plant development.
Complex mineral fertilizers contain not only basic, but also additional substances in a balanced amount. Simple mineral supplements contain only one major trace mineral, so they are used either in mixture with each other or to prevent a specific mineral deficiency.
Simple mineral fertilizers
Simple mineral fertilizers have a relatively low cost. Another advantage is the ability of the farmer to independently regulate the amount of certain substances in the top dressing.
All simple mineral fertilizers, depending on the main trace element, can be divided into three types:
- Nitrogen. They are used to accelerate the growth of leaves and shoots of the plant. Such an impact is extremely necessary at the early stage of tomato growing season. Nitrogen fertilizers are actively used to feed seedlings and plants in the soil before flowering, then the amount of nitrogen in the soil must be reduced, which will allow it to direct its forces not to growing green mass, but to the formation of fruits. Among nitrogen one-component minerals, urea (carbamide) and ammonium nitrate are in demand. To prepare a one-component fertilizer from urea, add 1 tbsp. l. substances in 10 liters of water.
- Phosphoric. Phosphorus is necessary for tomatoes for building and developing the root system. This trace element is especially in demand during the period of growing seedlings, picking plants and planting them in the ground. Simple phosphate fertilizers are superphosphate. The peculiarity of a simple phosphorus fertilizer is that it is poorly soluble in water, and in dry form is not absorbed by plants. In the preparation of top dressing, it is necessary to take this feature into account and prepare a superphosphate solution a day before use. This "aged" solution is called a draft. To prepare it, add 1 tbsp to 1 liter of boiling water. superphosphate. After the mixture has been infused for 24 hours, the working solution is diluted in 10 liters of water.
- Potash. Fertilizers containing potassium have a beneficial effect on the development of the root system, increase the immunity of tomatoes and improve the taste of vegetables. Potassium is added to the soil at various stages of crop cultivation. At the same time, it is recommended to use potassium salts that do not contain chlorine, since it negatively affects the growth of tomatoes. For example, potassium chloride can be added to the soil only in the fall, so that chlorine is washed out of the soil. The optimal potassium fertilizer for tomatoes is potassium. You can prepare a top dressing from this substance by adding 40 g of potassium sulfate to 10 liters of water. This solution should be enough to feed 1 m tomatoes.2 soil.
The above fertilizers are used for feeding seedlings or already adult plants, and for young tomatoes, it is recommended to slightly reduce the concentration of substances in relation to the proportions proposed above. For complex feeding of tomatoes, you can prepare a mixture of two or three simple substances.
Ready-made complex dressings
Most of the ready-made mineral complexes contain mixtures of the above simple substances. The balanced amount of ingredients allows the farmer not to think about what proportions to withstand when preparing top dressing.
Among the most effective and affordable complex fertilizers with minerals for tomatoes are used:
- Diammofosk. This fertilizer is unique for its extended, multicomponent composition. It contains a large amount of phosphorus and potassium (about 26%), as well as nitrogen (10%). In addition, the composition of the top dressing includes various additional micro and macro elements. An essential advantage of the fertilizer is its readily soluble form, which greatly facilitates the use of the substance. Diammofoska can be added to the soil during digging as the main micronutrient. The application rate in this case is 30-40 g per 1 m2 soil. For watering tomatoes at the root, the complex preparation is dissolved at the rate of 1-2 teaspoons per bucket of water. Plants are watered with a working solution for 1 m2 soil.
- Ammophos. This two-component fertilizer contains about 50% phosphorus and just over 10% nitrogen. Granular dressing does not contain chlorine, promotes the development of the root system of tomatoes and the early ripening of vegetables. For feeding tomatoes, the substance can be applied dry into grooves on ridges with plantings or in the form of a solution for irrigation under the root. It is important to note that dry Ammophos is introduced into the soil at a distance of no closer than 10 cm from the trunk of the plant.
- Nitroammophoska is a three-component substance in the form of gray granules. In the composition of the fertilizer, the main microelements are in equal proportions, approximately 16% each. Nitroammofoska is highly soluble in water and has a highly effective effect on various vegetable crops. So, when feeding with this fertilizer, you can increase the yield of a tomato by 30, and sometimes by 70%. Nitroammofoska can be used when digging dry soil or for root feeding of tomatoes during cultivation. The rate of top dressing is 30-40 g / m2.
When using the listed types of complex mineral dressings, it is necessary to take into account the nature of the origin of the substances. So, Ammophos and Diammofoska belong to the category of nitrate-free drugs, which is their important advantage. Nitroammofoska contains nitrates in its composition, which can accumulate in tomatoes. If the application rate of this fertilizer is exceeded, the ecological compatibility of vegetables can be significantly impaired.
An overview of other mineral fertilizers and advice from a professional farmer can be seen in the video:
The video also notes the symptoms of a deficiency of specific minerals and ways to solve the problem using various mineral root and foliar dressings.
General rules for the use of mineral fertilizers
Mineral feeding of tomatoes must be carried out in compliance with certain rules:
- During the formation of flowers, ovaries, fruits, it is impossible to use mineral preparations as leaf feeding. This can lead to fruit intoxication and human poisoning when eating such tomatoes.
- All mineral fertilizers must be stored in sealed bags.
- Excess concentration of mineral fertilizers negatively affects the growth and fruiting process of tomatoes and can lead to fattening of tomatoes or their "burning".
- The amount of mineral substances can be adjusted depending on the composition and the existing fertility of the soil. So, on clay soils, the amount of fertilizer can be increased, and on sandy soils, it can be reduced.
- It is possible to use dry mineral dressing only under the condition of regular abundant watering. It is necessary to close up the substances to the depth of the tomato roots.
Guided by such simple rules for the use of mineral dressings, you can improve the process of growing crops and increase yields without harming the quality of tomatoes.
This type of fertilizer is a relative novelty on the market, however, over time, organic minerals are becoming more and more popular. They are a mixture of organic matter, such as slurry or chicken manure infusion, with simple minerals.
The advantages of organic fertilizers are:
- environmental Safety;
- the ability to quickly be absorbed by plants and provide the desired effect in a short time;
- the ability to significantly improve the composition of the soil before and after planting tomatoes.
On sale you can find organic fertilizers in various forms: in the form of solutions, granules, dry mixtures. The most popular organomineral dressings for tomatoes are:
- Humates are a natural substance in the form of an extract from peat, manure, and silt. You can find potassium and sodium humates on sale. These tomato feed contains not only the basic substance indicated in the name, but also a full range of minerals, including nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. The composition also contains humic acid and a number of beneficial bacteria that improve the quality and fertility of the soil, warm the roots of plants, and accelerate their growth. Using Humates, you can significantly increase the yield of tomatoes without harming the environmental friendliness of the fruit. The organomineral preparation can be safely used at various stages of the tomato growing season. Seeds are soaked in a solution of Humate, seedlings and already adult plants on the ridges are watered with it. To carry out root feeding and feeding on the sheet, prepare a solution of Humate 1 tbsp. on a bucket of water.
- BIO VITA. Among the organomineral fertilizers of this brand, “Senior Tomato” can be used for feeding tomatoes. In addition to organic extracts, this fertilizer contains a complex of minerals: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in a clearly balanced amount. The use of this fertilizer has a beneficial effect on the formation of ovaries and improves the taste of tomatoes. At the same time, receiving a large amount of potassium and a limited amount of nitrogen, plants do not allow themselves to fatten and direct their efforts to increase yields. That is why the organomineral preparation of this brand is effective when used in the second half of the cultivation period. For root feeding, the organomineral complex is added in the amount of 5 tbsp. on a bucket of water.
- Baby. Organomineral fertilizer "Malyshok" is used for feeding seedlings and already grown tomatoes in the ground after planting. This drug allows you to increase the stress resistance of plants, prepare them for transplantation and improve the development of the root system. In a solution of the drug, you can soak tomato seeds, accelerating the process of their germination and increasing germination. You can prepare a fertilizer based on this preparation by adding 100 ml of substances to a bucket of water.
The use of these preparations is absolutely safe for plants. With the help of organomineral complexes, it is possible to carry out not only root, but also foliar feeding. A well-chosen composition of fertilizers allows you to increase the yield of tomatoes, accelerate the development of their root system, and improve the taste of vegetables.
Important! You can prepare your own organomineral fertilizer by adding simple phosphorus and potassium fertilizers to the manure infusion.
Scheme of using mineral fertilizers
It is unreasonable to repeatedly introduce mineral fertilizing into the soil when growing tomatoes. It is necessary to use mineral fertilizers only if necessary, when there is a deficiency of a certain trace element or on a planned basis, in compliance with a certain schedule. So, the recommended scheme for feeding tomatoes includes the following steps:
- Tomato seedlings are fed after the appearance of 2-3 leaves. During this period, it is necessary to feed tomatoes with a complex preparation, for example, Nitroammophos or organic mineral fertilizer "Malyshok".
- Seedlings are fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers a week before the planned planting of plants in the soil.
- The first top dressing of tomatoes in the soil can be carried out 10 days after planting the plants in the soil. At this stage, you can use nitrogen-containing fertilizers for the active growth of tomato leaves. The frequency of such dressings should be 1 time in 10 days.
- When blooming brushes and ovaries appear, it is recommended to focus on the use of potash dressings with a small amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. Such complex feeding must be repeated until the end of the vegetative period of the plants.
If the soil on which the tomatoes grow is depleted, then you may encounter symptoms of a lack of one or another mineral. In this case, it is recommended to use simple mineral fertilizers as foliar feeding. The procedure for spraying the leaves with nutrient solutions will correct the situation of starvation and soon saturate the plants with the necessary trace element.
It is impossible to get a high-quality tomato crop without the use of mineral fertilizing even on the most fertile soil. Plants regularly consume substances during their growth, depleting existing soil resources. That is why feeding should be regular and complex. At the same time, it is important to monitor the concentration of substances and methods of introducing mineral supplements, depending on the growing season of tomatoes. Only properly fed tomatoes are able to thank the farmer with tasty and healthy vegetables in large quantities.