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Marsh iris (Iris pseudacorus) can be found naturally. This is an amazing plant that adorns water bodies. It takes root well in private gardens, park areas near ponds.
Yellow buds with bright "tongues" on long green stems are a great option for landscape designers
Description of swamp iris
Iris marsh, according to the description and photo, is a herbaceous perennial growing in fresh water bodies. A strong rhizome develops well in such an environment, it accumulates nutrients.
Growth points are located in the lateral part of the marsh iris root, which makes it possible to tilt the shoots horizontally in different directions. Thanks to this, voluminous bushes are obtained.
Attention! The place of formation of leaves and flowers in marsh iris is the buds located on the rhizome.
Wide xiphoid plates light green or variegated. With proper care and the creation of appropriate conditions, they grow in length up to 2 m.
The marsh iris has up to 15 powerful branched peduncles. Each bud has three petals in the outer and the same number in the inner circle. The color can be different depending on the variety and classification of marsh iris. The palette of buds is:
- yellow (with an orange core);
Varietal plants have an external resemblance to wild-growing iris, therefore it has other names - calamus (iris).
Plants bloom in June, and by mid-July a box with seeds is formed in the marsh iris
In nature, the fruit cracks, black grains pour out into the water, where they then germinate. They do not sink for a long time, they float on the surface. This is because they have an air cavity.
Aire-shaped iris is not only a beautiful plant that landscape designers have noticed for a long time. The flower belongs to medicinal species. Rhizomes of marsh iris are used for coughs, migraines, tonsillitis, gastritis. Iris leaves are rich in vitamin C, amino acids.
Why is pseudoair iris listed in the Red Book?
False fire iris grows up to 1.5 m. It is distinguished by flat long leaves of green or gray color.
The upper petals of yellow buds are slightly underdeveloped, they are shorter than the outer ones. Among calamus irises there are representatives with white flowers.
The rhizome is powerful, dissected, which ensures the successful growth of the iris. Unfortunately, due to drought or forced draining of swamps, the number of plants is decreasing. All yellow marsh irises, regardless of variety and description, are listed in the Red Book.
Cultivation in summer cottages, in parks, near artificial reservoirs helps to protect the culture from extinction
Swamp iris varieties
Among the marsh irises, there are varieties with a different color palette. It is possible to choose plants with blue, yellow, purple, white and cream petals for the site.
- Iris marsh Variegata. It is famous for its pale blue flowers. He also has decorative leaves: they are bright green with yellow stripes. The culture is especially beautiful in spring.
By the fall, there is no trace of the decorativeness of the Variegat, so it is recommended to cut the shoots
- Flora Plena. This variety of marsh iris has double petals of bright yellow color. In the middle of the bud there are stripes of dark yellow and brownish shades. The leaves are dark green. The decorativeness of the plant is fully revealed when certain conditions are created.
Flora Pleno will require a lot of moisture and sun
- Iris chrysographes Black Form. It is an unpretentious variety with dark purple, almost black petals. The lower ones have small golden streaks. Hence the name. Irises are high - up to half a meter. Flowering begins in June-July. Excess moisture negatively affects the decorative effect of the plant.
For planting Black Fom, it is better to select not too damp places, in the sun or in an openwork shade
- English White. On powerful stems up to 1 m high, delicate buds with white petals bloom. Longitudinal streaks of cream shade are clearly visible on each "tongue". Closer to the middle of the flower, there is a dark cherry stripe on the petals.
On one arrow, English White blooms about nine buds
- Creme de la Creme. This is an unpretentious marsh iris, for its planting, you can choose wet, and even flooded places, shallow water. Looks good in partial shade, but it is in the sun that it reveals all its charm. The height of the bushes is 70-90 cm. The flowers are light cream with burgundy-purple veins at the base. The buds are large - about 10 cm in diameter.
The Crème de la Crème variety is winter-hardy, so you can grow the crop everywhere
- Bastard (Bastardii). The height of this plant is about 120 cm. It is also found in nature, only in varietal iris flowers are lemon-yellow, as in the photo, with a clearly visible orange-red core. In the wild variety, the color of the petals is uniform, uniform.
Bastard flowers reach 12-14 cm in diameter
Swamp iris in landscape design
Swamp iris with yellow and blue petals has long been particularly popular with landscape designers. This is no coincidence. The plant is unpretentious to care for, it grows quickly. Thanks to him, you can create various flower arrangements.
- yellow marsh iris looks great in areas next to trees and shrubs;
Bastard flowers reach 12-14 cm in diameter
- next to other perennials;
- as tapeworm groups on lawns;
- single landings;
Thick bushes with long peduncles can decorate any area
- flower beds with multi-colored marsh irises look great;
- on ponds, small lakes or wet beds, varieties of yellow marsh iris are placed in rows or curtains.
Different aquatic plants can be planted next to marsh iris
Attention! If there is a swampy area in the country, then it is quite suitable for growing such a crop of any varieties.
Like other plants, marsh iris reproduces in a variety of ways. Each of them is good in its own way:
- By dividing the rhizome. To do this, you need to dig up a bog iris bush with a good lump of soil and clean the root. Using a sharp knife, cut the delenki. Each of them should have 2-3 lateral buds and one central shoot. Sprinkle the cut sites with charcoal or ash to prevent diseases. Cut the leaves a little before planting. To root the delenki, first plant them in containers, and then to a permanent place.
- Seed reproduction. The material has a dense skin, so stratification is required for germination. Seeds of marsh iris are sown in late autumn into the ground, and a film is sprinkled on top. They are seated in the spring.
Planting marsh iris
It is necessary to plant marsh iris in a permanent place in August-September. The site must be protected from drafts. The planted delenki will bloom next summer.
When choosing marsh iris seedlings, you should pay attention to their appearance. Roots and stems should not have any damage, signs of rot, traces of diseases and pests.
Irises are planted in damp or shallow water, in areas open to the sun. The acidity of the soil should be 7 pH, fertile, with a lot of clay.
- To control the growth of seedlings, the seed is placed in large containers with fertile soil.
- The earth is well moistened until it becomes mushy.
- The rhizomes of the iris are cut by 1/3, and the leaf blades are also shortened.
After preparing for planting, the plants will spend energy for rooting.
- The seedling is placed to a depth of 10 cm. The root is placed not in the center of the container, but closer to the walls.
- The thickening on which the growth points are located is left above the ground.
- Then containers with marsh iris seedlings are installed in a permanent place in the reservoir, immersed in 20-40 cm.
You can plant a crop directly in open ground
Advice! In seedling containers, seedlings are placed in flower beds.
Florists do not have any particular difficulties in growing plants. Marsh iris is unpretentious. It is only necessary to fulfill some conditions at the time of landing:
- Lighting. The leaves and flowers of the culture are not afraid of the open sun. Moreover, the plants need to be lit all day.
- Watering. If irises are planted in water bodies or in a swamp bed, then additional irrigation is not required. In other cases, the soil is constantly kept moist, preventing the top layer from drying out. In heat and drought, you will have to water it twice a day.
- Top dressing. Plants that are planted in reservoirs do not need fertilization. In other cases, you can add a complex composition after flowering, for example, "Kemira".
Is the marsh iris cut for the winter?
When growing iris marsh flower growers do not experience any particular difficulties. The only point to pay attention to concerns the trimming of the ground part. This procedure is mandatory and is performed several times during the growing season.
In what cases is pruning carried out:
- If spots appear on the leaf plates or they have lost their decorative effect due to pests.
- After the end of flowering, so that nutrients can accumulate in the rhizomes.
- In late autumn, before frost.
- In accordance with the rules of agricultural technology of individual varieties.
During pruning, a third of the height of the marsh iris leaves is left
Pests and diseases
Despite the fact that plants are unpretentious, unfortunately, it is not always possible to maintain their health. From time to time, the culture is sick and affected by pests.
What marsh irises can suffer from:
- Alternaria. Unfortunately, it is impossible to cure plants, you only need to destroy and disinfect the soil.
- Ascochitis causes the leaves to dry out. For treatment, drugs containing copper are used.
- Prolonged rains and warm summers can become the cause of the appearance of heterosporiosis. The disease damages flowers. There are no medications, you need to cut off the affected petals in a timely manner.
- For the treatment of rot on marsh irises, solutions containing sulfur are used.
Advice! Fighting diseases is difficult, it is better to prevent them. In spring and autumn, it is recommended to treat plants and soil with Bordeaux liquid.
If we talk about pests, then irises can suffer from:
- onion fly;
- gladiolus thrips;
It is useful to treat the plantings with special solutions. The preparations are diluted in accordance with the recommendations in the instructions.
Marsh iris is a beautiful plant that is gaining popularity. Due to the fact that there are many varieties with different petals, you can create unique flower arrangements on the site.